dna

(redirected from chromosomal DNA)
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Related to chromosomal DNA: Plasmid DNA, single copy DNA

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Individual real-time PCR amplifications were performed on 50-100 ng of chromosomal DNA in a PRISM 7700 sequence detector (Applied Biosystems).
Because the biosensor sensitivity provides for detection of relatively few surface capture hybridization reactions, targets as complex as bacterial chromosomal DNA can be analyzed without purification.
Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is used to study the chromosomal changes that frequently occur in cancer cells, including the loss or duplication of regions of chromosomal DNA.
Analysis of the macrorestriction profiles of chromosomal DNA of the two isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, carried out as described previously (6), indicated that the two isolates were clonally related (the two profiles were apparently identical).
NYSE:ENZ), announced today that the European Patent Office has granted it a patent that describes, in part, a method of performing targeted delivery and incorporation of genetic material into chromosomal DNA without using a viral vector, thus making possible the editing and correcting of certain abnormalities in genes.
After purification, amplified DNA can be analysed in a manner similar to any genomic or chromosomal DNA sample.
Chromosomal DNA fingerprint patterns produced with IS6110 as strain-specific markers for epidemiologic study of tuberculosis.
They identify human chromosomal DNA regions that are shared between individuals, and in some cases are associated with predispositions to specific diseases.
Chromosomal DNA was extracted from the isolates with chloroform-isoamyl alcohol, and RFLP was performed according to international standards (7).
Ionization in tissue leads to the formation of oxygen free radicals, which induces breaks in chromosomal DNA.
This pioneering study -- one of the largest of its type ever conducted -- is designed to provide a detailed haplotype map of a chromosomal DNA region and could involve millions of genotypes.