dna

(redirected from chromosomal DNA)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.
Related to chromosomal DNA: Plasmid DNA, single copy DNA

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
Kinetics of the persistence of chromosomal DNA from genetically engineered Escherichia coliintroduced into soil.
The macrorestriction pattern of chromosomal DNA with endonucleases mentioned above is showed in Figure 2.
When PCR was done for plasmid DNA alone, it detected 30 per cent ESBL positive isolates using TEM primer and 38 per cent using SHV primer, whereas PCR with both plasmid and chromosomal DNA showed 56 per cent positivity for TEM and 60 per cent positivity for SHV.
2007) generated by using the chromosomal DNA of Korean cattle (Hanwoo breed) has been a useful resource for genomic research (Hong et al.
Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing.
Under this partnership, the three companies will strive to develop an agent that inhibits the activity of Cdc7-ASK kinase, which plays a role in chromosomal DNA replication.
After denaturation at 70[degrees]C with 70% formamide/2 x SSC for 3 min, the chromosomal DNA on the slides was dehydrated with a modified series of cold ethanol (70% for 2 min; 100% for 3 min).
Two types of DNAs were studied: mitochondrial DNA that is inherited from the mother and Y chromosomal DNA that is inherited from the father.
Unlike chromosomal DNA, which is an equal blend of genetic material from the mother and father, mitochondrial DNA is handed down only by the mother.
To begin with, chromosomal DNA was cut by certain enzymes to produce overlapping fragments (100,000--200,000 base pairs long), each of which was inserted into a DNA piece called a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC).
In a fourth Michigan county, fire blight bacteria have incorporated the two resistance genes into their chromosomal DNA.