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CIPHER. An arithmetical character, used for numerical notation. Vide Figures, and 13 Vin. Ab. 210; 18 Eng. C. L. R. 95; 1 Ch. Cr. Law, 176.
     2. By cipher is also understood a mode of secret writing. Public ministers and other public agents frequently use ciphers in their correspondence, and it is sometimes very useful so to correspond in times of war. A key is given to each minister before his departure, namely, the cipher for writing ciphers, (chiffre chiffrant,) and the cipher for deciphering (chiffre dechiffrant.) Besides these, it is usual to give him a common cipher, (chiffre banal,) which is known to all the ministers of the same power, who occasionally use it in their correspondence with each other.
     3. When it is suspected that, a cipher becomes known to the cabinet where the minister is residing, recourse is had to a preconcerted sign in order to annul, entirely or in part, what has been written in cipher, or rather to indicate that the contents are to be understood in an inverted or contrary sense. A cipher of reserve is also employed in extraordinary cases.

References in classic literature ?
The cipher message begins with a large 534, does it not?
Looking now, narrowly, through the cipher for combinations of known characters, we find, not very far from the beginning, this arrangement, 83(88, or egree, which, plainly, is the conclusion of the word 'degree,' and gives us another letter, d, represented by †.
Cracking Codes with Python" shows how to make, test, and hack programs that encrypt text with classical ciphers like the transposition cipher and Vigenere cipher.
14] generalized the related-cipher attack model to be applied on a larger class of related ciphers.
Stream ciphers are known to be very area efficient when it comes to hardware implementation, but their sequential nature gives rise to the probability of the design consuming a lot of power.
The authors cover block ciphers in general, digital circuits, hardware implementations for block ciphers, side-channel analysis and fault analysis on block ciphers, cryptoanalysis on block ciphers, and many other related topics over the bookAEs seven chapters.
Using ciphers, Caesar changed his messages into something his enemies could not read.
Between 1858 and 1868 he invented four and recorded them in his diary: two matrix ciphers and two polyalphabetic ciphers: the Telegraph Cipher and the Alphabet Cipher.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electro technical Commission (IEC) have been working on ISO/IEC 29192 as an international standard for light-weight cryptography for implementation in constrained environments and have now issued ISO/IEC 29192-3, the section on stream ciphers, adopting Enocoro as an international standard.
Stream ciphers are much less power consuming, requires small space for their operations and are faster in operation than other cryptographic algorithms.
Al Mazroui said many ciphers were a "64 bit" which was considered somewhat strong, but not excessively.
Mysterious Messages: A History of Codes and Ciphers