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CIPHER. An arithmetical character, used for numerical notation. Vide Figures, and 13 Vin. Ab. 210; 18 Eng. C. L. R. 95; 1 Ch. Cr. Law, 176.
     2. By cipher is also understood a mode of secret writing. Public ministers and other public agents frequently use ciphers in their correspondence, and it is sometimes very useful so to correspond in times of war. A key is given to each minister before his departure, namely, the cipher for writing ciphers, (chiffre chiffrant,) and the cipher for deciphering (chiffre dechiffrant.) Besides these, it is usual to give him a common cipher, (chiffre banal,) which is known to all the ministers of the same power, who occasionally use it in their correspondence with each other.
     3. When it is suspected that, a cipher becomes known to the cabinet where the minister is residing, recourse is had to a preconcerted sign in order to annul, entirely or in part, what has been written in cipher, or rather to indicate that the contents are to be understood in an inverted or contrary sense. A cipher of reserve is also employed in extraordinary cases.

References in periodicals archive ?
Together, the moves and annotations relate the story to the chess board; which is what a key does for a plaintext and a ciphertext.
Ciphertext (data in encrypted form) bears roughly the same resemblance to plaintext (data in its original form) as a hamburger does to a T-bone steak.
Baconian Cipher Key Plaintext Ciphertext A BBABB B BABBB C BBBAA D BBABA E BABBA F BABAB G BAABB H BBAAA I BABAA J BAAAA K AAAAB L AAABA M AABAA N ABAAA O AAABB P AABAB Q ABAAB R ABABA S ABBAA T AABBB U ABABB V ABBAB W ABBBA X ABBBB Y BBBBA Z BBBAB
Such mixing of secret subkeys prevents an adversary who does not know the keys from even beginning to encrypt the plaintext or decrypt the ciphertext.
Given: Cryptanalyst has corresponding pairs of plaintext and ciphertext and, of course, the algorithm.
Plaintext may be enciphered either by transposition or substitution: transposition involves rearranging plaintext symbols without changing their identity, while substitution replaces the symbols by one or more ciphertext symbols.
In fine-grained encryption, a variety of parameters are added to the ciphertext and decryption key in the encryption-decryption logic.
in this system, the ciphertext are marked with the attributes and private keys only if that constraints are satisfied the user will be able to decrypt it.
The user must completely trust PKG, whereas PKG could engage in malicious activities including indeed decrypt any ciphertext for any user and re-distribute user's private keys for any identity, which slows down the application of IBBE.
Using additively homomorphic cryptosystem permit the computation of linear combinations of encrypted data without need for prior decryption, such that PRS can combine received encrypted rating profiles into a new ciphertext that is the encryption of the sum of the ratings of the original ratings.
The MB86C30A bridge IC supports two AES operation modes: Cipher Block Chaining (CBC), a mode for encrypting block data, and XTS, the XEX encryption mode with tweak and ciphertext stealing.
producing ciphertext by scrambling the text in such a way that only