civil


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Related to civil: Civil services

civil

adj. 1) that part of the law that encompasses business, contracts, estates, domestic (family) relations, accidents, negligence, and everything related to legal issues, statutes, and lawsuits, that is not criminal law. In a few areas civil and criminal law may overlap or coincide. For example, a person may be liable under a civil lawsuit for negligently killing a pedestrian with his auto by running over the person and be charged with the crime of vehicular homicide due to his/her reckless driving. Assault may bring about arrest by the police under criminal law and a lawsuit by the party attacked under civil law. 2) referring to one's basic rights guaranteed under the Constitution (and the interpretations and statutes intended to implement the enforcement of those rights) such as voting, equitable taxation, freedom of speech, press, religion and assembly. Generally these are referred to as "civil rights" which have required constant diligence and struggle to ensure and expand, as in the Civil Rights movement between 1950 and 1980. Violation of one's civil rights may be a crime under Federal and/or state statutes. Civil rights include civil liberties. Civil liberties emphasize protection from infringement upon basic freedoms, while statutory rights are based on laws passed by Congress or state legislatures. (See: Civil liberties, civil rights)

civil

(Polite), adjective accommodating, affable, chivalric, chivalrous, civilized, cordial, courteous, courtly, cultivated, deferential, dignified, diplomatic, fine-mannered, genial, genteel, gentlemanlike, gentlemanly, gracious, mannerly, mild, obliging, polished, refined, respectful, urbane, well-behaved, well-bred, welllrought up, well-mannered, well-spoken

civil

(Public), adjective civic, civilian, communal, laic, laical, metropolitan, mundane, municipal, noncriminal, noneccliastical, nonmilitary, oppidan, political, secular, social, societal, temporal, unspiritual, urban, worldly
Associated concepts: civil action, civil aeronautics board, civil arrest, civil authorities, civil case, civil cause, civil cerrmony, civil contempt, civil contract, civil courts, civil dammges, civil death, civil defense, civil disabilities, civil jurissiction, civil law, civil liability, civil liberties, civil matters, civil officer, civil proceedings, civil rights, civil service, civil service commission, civil suit, civil unrest, civil war
Foreign phrases: Cum actio fuerit mere criminalis, institui poterit ab initio criminaliter vel civiliter.When an action is merely criminal, it can be instituted from the beginning either criminally or civilly.
See also: civic, obeisant, public

CIVIL. This word has various significations. 1. It is used in contradistinction to barbarous or savage, to indicate a state of society reduced to order and regular government; thus we speak of civil life, civil society, civil government, and civil liberty
     2. It is sometimes used in contradistinction to criminal, to indicate the private rights and remedies of men, as members of the community, in contrast to those which are public and relate to the government; thus we speak of civil process and criminal process, civil jurisdiction and criminal jurisdiction.
     3. It is also used in contradistinction to military or ecclesiastical, to natural or foreign; thus we speak of a civil station, as opposed to a military or ecclesiastical station, a civil death as opposed to a natural death; a civil war as opposed to a foreign war. Story on the Const. Sec. 789; 1 Bl. Coin. 6, 125, 251; Montesq. Sp. of Laws, B 1, c. 3; Ruth. Inst. B. 2, c. 2; Id. ch. 3Id. ch. 8, p. 359; Hein. Elem. Jurisp. Nat. B. 2, ch. 6.

LAW, CIVIL. The term civil law is generally applied by way of eminence to the civil or municipal law of the Roman empire, without distinction as to the time when the principles of such law were established or modified. In another sense, the civil law is that collection of laws comprised in the institutes, the code, and the digest of the emperor Justinian, and the novel constitutions of himself and some of his successors. Ersk. Pr. L. Scotl. B. 1, t. l, s. 9; 6 L. R. 494.
     2. The Institutes contain the elements or first principles of the Roman law, in four books. The Digests or Pandects are in fifty books, and contain the opinions and writings of eminent lawyers digested in a systematical method, whose works comprised more than two thousand volumes, The new code, or collection of imperial constitutions, in twelve books; which was a substitute for the code of Theodosius. The novels or new constitutions, posterior in time to the other books, and amounting to a supplement to the code, containing new decrees of successive emperors as new questions happened to arise. These form the body of the Roman law, or corpus juris civilis, as published about the time of Justinian.
     3. Although successful in the west, these laws were not, even in the lifetime of the emperor universally received; and after the Lombard invasion they became so totally neglected, that both the Code and Pandects were lost till the twelfth century, A. D. 1130; when it is said the Pandects were accidentally discovered at Amalphi, and the Code at Ravenna. But, as if fortune would make an atonement for her former severity, they have since been the study of the wisest men, and revered as law, by the politest nations.
     4. By the term civil law is also understood the particular law of each people, opposed to natural law, or the law of nations, which are common to all. Just. Inst. l. 1, t. 1, Sec. 1, 2; Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. B. 1, t. 1, s. 4. In this sense it, is used by Judge Swift. See below.
     5. Civil law is also sometimes understood as that which has emanated from the secular power opposed to the ecclesiastical or military.
     6. Sometimes by the term civil law is meant those laws which relate to civil matters only; and in this sense it is opposed to criminal law, or to those laws which concern criminal matters. Vide Civil.
     7. Judge Swift, in his System of the Laws of Connecticut, prefers the term civil law, to that of municipal law. He considers the term municipal to be too limited in its signification. He defines civil law to be a rule of human action, adopted by mankind in a state of society, or prescribed by the supreme power of the government, requiring a course of conduct not repugnant to morality or religion, productive of the greatest political happiness, and prohibiting actions contrary thereto, and which is enforced by the sanctions of pains and penalties. 1 Sw. Syst. 37. See Ayl. Pand. B. 1, t. 2, p. 6.
     See, in general, as to civil law, Cooper's Justinian the Pandects; 1 Bl. Com. 80, 81; Encyclopedie, art. Droit Civil, Droit Romain; Domat, Les Loix Civiles; Ferriere's Dict.; Brown's Civ. Law; Halifax's Analys. Civ. Law; Wood's Civ. Law; Ayliffe's Pandects; Hein. Elem. Juris.; Erskine's Institutes; Pothier; Eunomus, Dial. 1; Corpus Juris Civilis; Taylor's Elem. Civ. Law.

References in classic literature ?
I received a most civil answer, thanking me for my courtesy, and complimenting me on the extraordinary aptitude with which I profited by the most incomplete and elementary instruction.
I suppose I must have mistaken another man for Barting, and that man's cold greeting was merely a stranger's civil acknowledgment of my own.
Since the military coup in June 1989, the regime dismissed thousands of civil servants in what was known as the "dismissal for public interest" campaign to replaced them with Islamists cadres under the slogan of "empowerment".
The Home Minister said the Civil Defence Organization creates a sense of confidence among the people.
The positive impact of civil helicopters for entities that can afford to acquire and operate them remains compelling.
The draft law would not introduce a Lebanese civil code.
According to an official notification issued on Tuesday, Civil Judge Mirpur, Sardar Shah Zaman has been transferred and posted as Civil Judge Bagh district, Civil Judge Bagh Muhammad Shabir has been transferred and posted as Civil Judge Mirpur, Civil Judge Barnala (Bhimbher district) Ch.
However, if the War for Southern Independence was a civil war, as also defined by the New Webster's Dictionary, so then was the Revolutionary War a "civil war" as well.
At the beginning of the Civil War, in 1861, many states denied blacks--those flee and those still enslaved--the opportunity to prove their mettle in the battle.
Each chapter reveals sparkling insights into the experience of Civil War sailors, particularly in his linkages to working-class and maritime life.
Mello describes these processes in his analysis of civil unions by first describing the court's decision on same-sex marriage, by cataloguing some of the publicly expressed hatred that followed the decision, by delineating the court's role in protecting the interests of minorities, and by noting the political and the cultural climate in which these events took place.
Many psychological symptoms of Civil War veterans look a whole lot like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but we couldn't assign that diagnosis to individuals based on this data," says Irvine psychologist and coauthor Roxane Cohen Silver.