civil service


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Civil Service

The designation given to government employment for which a person qualifies on the basis of merit rather than political patronage or personal favor.

Civil service employees, often called civil servants or public employees, work in a variety of fields such as teaching, sanitation, health care, management, and administration for the federal, state, or local government. Legislatures establish basic prerequisites for employment such as compliance with minimal age and educational requirements and residency laws. Employees enjoy job security, promotion and educational opportunities, comprehensive medical insurance coverage, and Pension and other benefits often not provided in comparable positions in private employment.

Most civil service positions are filled from lists of applicants who are rated in descending order of their passing scores on competitive civil service examinations. Such examinations are written tests designed to measure objectively a person's aptitude to perform a job. They are open to the general public upon the completion and filing of the necessary forms. Promotional competitive examinations screen eligible employees for job advancement. Veterans of the Armed Services may be given hiring preference, usually in the form of extra points added to their examination scores, depending upon the nature and duration of their service. Applicants may also be required to pass a medical examination and more specialized tests that relate directly to the performance of a designated job. Once hired, an employee may have to take an oath to execute his job in Good Faith and in accordance with the law.

Unlike workers in private employment, civil service employees may be prohibited from certain acts that would compromise their position as servants of the government and the general public. For example, the federal Hatch Act (5 U.S.C.A. § 7324 et seq. [1887]) makes participation by federal, state, and local civil service employees in designated public electoral and political activities unlawful.

The U.S. Civil Service Commission, created by Congress in 1883 and reorganized under the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C.A. § 1101 et seq.) as the Merit Systems Protection Board, established a merit system for federal employment and governs various aspects of such employment, such as job classification, tenure, pay, training, employee relations, equal opportunity, pensions, and health and life insurance. Most states have comparable bodies for the regulation of state and local civil service employment.

civil service

in the constitutional law of the UK, servants of the Crown who are permanent and do not change with a political change of government. There is no definition of a Crown servant. A subordinate who is employed by a civil servant is a servant of the Crown and not of the person employing him. Recruitment and examination, for many the insignia of a mature and independent civil service, have for over one hundred years been carried out by the Civil Service Commission, a body established not by statute but by order in council. Independence is supported by having pay decided by the Civil Service National Whitley Council. They may be precluded from being able to strike on grounds of national security. Civil servants have no special constitutional status separate from the minister they serve and have no right to reveal confidential information in the public interest, an issue discussed in relation to official secrets. There is a sliding scale of permission to take part in politics, the higher the official, the lesser the activity permitted.
References in periodicals archive ?
In Easton's theory, the civil service system will be an important part of the "black box" that converts public demands and support into policy decisions and actions.
It is important to insulate the bureaucracy from the worst political pressures--no one wants an Office of Management and Budget producing reports that simply rationalize current administration policies--and it would be a sad day when political appointees could fire civil service employees on a whim.
Yet, Halligan points out that one motivation for civil service system reform in Australia was to allow top executive positions to come under the control of the government.
They tried to convince the German state governments that Anglo-American notions of reform were in fact superior to the status quo and that it would thus be a good idea to draft new state civil service laws based on these concepts.
But there is a vast gap between this version of constitutional theory (still proclaimed as current by ministers and civil service managers) and modern-day reality.
The Head of Service lamented that the Nigeria Civil Service was old in age and that this year alone, the Service would be losing many directors and deputy directors to retirement.
The 2nd ASEAN Heads of Civil Service Retreat and the ASEAN Forum on Innovative Leadership are part of the activities led by the Philippines to commemorate the 50th anniversary of ASEAN.
Present at the launching ceremony were Sheikh Ahmed bin Nasser al-Nadabi, Undersecretary of the Ministry of Civil Service for Civil Service Affairs and officials at the Ministry.
The officials decided to form a technical committee at the level of ministerial undersecretaries to study the obstacles facing the implementation of the council resolutions, regarding equality treating the GCC citizens in the field of civil service, It is worth noting that the Kingdom of Bahrain has satisfied its obligations towards all the Supreme Council resolutions, including employment equality.
President Rohani has postponed the annual civil service exam, saying not enough women have applied because not enough government jobs are opened to them.
This past January, fulfilling a promise I made to myself when I was sworn in as DG, I stood up a team to improve the Civil Service experience in the Department.
The Pakistan government has finalised a civil service reforms package that, on the face of it, lacks material changes in the present obsolete structure.

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