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Leniency or mercy. A power given to a public official, such as a governor or the president, to in some way lower or moderate the harshness of punishment imposed upon a prisoner.

Clemency is considered to be an act of grace. It is based on the policy of fairness, justice, and forgiveness. It is not a right but rather a privilege, and one who is granted clemency does not have the crime forgotten, as in Amnesty, but is forgiven and treated more leniently for the criminal acts. Clemency is similar to pardon inasmuch as it is an act of grace exempting someone from punishment. Commutation of an offender's sentence, however, is the lessening of the punishment based on the offender's own good conduct subsequent to his conviction.

Although clemency is a privilege and not a right, questions have arisen as to whether a prisoner sentenced to death is entitled to certain constitutional rights during a clemency proceeding. States that impose the death penalty require a clemency review before a prisoner is executed. For example, Ohio requires the state Parole authority to conduct a clemency review 45 days before the date of execution and file its report with the governor. As part of the review the prisoner may request an interview with a parole board member but the prisoner does not have the right to have an attorney present.

An Ohio death row inmate objected to the interview on two grounds, contending it violated his Fifth Amendment right against Self-Incrimination and his Fourteenth Amendment right to due process. He insisted that he should not have to make a choice between seeking clemency and remaining silent about the crime he had been convicted of, and of other crimes he may have committed. A federal appeals court agreed with the inmate that the process violated his Fifth Amendment right, but the Supreme Court reversed the decision in Ohio Adult Parole Authority v. Woodard, 523 U.S. 272, 118 S.Ct. 1244, 140 L.Ed.2d 387 (1998).

The Supreme Court found that the inmate did not have any due process rights because clemency could only be given at the discretion of the governor. Moreover, the Executive Branch, not the judicial branch, conducted the process. In addition, the Court cited prior rulings where it had stated that pardon and commutation proceedings have not traditionally been the business of courts and are rarely, if ever, appropriate subjects for Judicial Review. As to the Fifth Amendment argument, the Court ruled that the inmate had to exercise the same choice he had made at trial: to testify or to remain silent. In the Ohio clemency process, the inmate has a choice of providing information—at the risk of damaging his case for clemency or for post-conviction relief—or of remaining silent.

Acts of clemency are usually issued in isolated cases. In 2002, however, outgoing governor George Ryan announced that he had concerns about the fairness of Illinois judicial proceedings against 160 death row inmates, which compelled him to begin clemency review proceedings into their crimes. During the fall of 2002 a special review board conducted public hearings and private reviews concerning each inmate's case. Relatives of victims gave emotional testimony, while attorneys for the inmates pointed out troublesome charges, including the use of torture on suspects to make them confess. In January 2003, Governor Ryan took the unprecedented step of granting clemency to all the death row inmates. He pardoned four inmates who he believed were not guilty; the remainder of the inmates were given life sentences. Ryan concluded that the legal process surrounding Capital Punishment had become so corrupted that he had no choice but to grant clemency.

Further readings

Burnett, Cathleen. 2002. Justice Denied: Clemency Appeals in Death Penalty Cases. Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press.

Davey, Monica, and Steve Mills. 2003. "Ryan Issues Blanket Clemency." Chicago Tribune (January 11).

Gagne, Patricia. 1998. Battered Women's Justice: The Movement for Clemency and the Politics of Self-Defense. New York: Twayne.


Due Process of Law; Prisoners' Rights.


noun absolution, amnesty, benefaction, beneficence, benevolence, benignity, charity, clementia, clementness, commutation, compassion, consideration, disposition to mercy, disposition to pardon, excuse, exemption, extenuation, forbearance, forgiveness, generosity, generousness, gentleness, good will, grace, humaneness, humanity, indemnity, indulgence, kindness, leniency, lenity, liberality, magnanimity, mansuetuda, mercifulness, mercy, obligingness, pardon, pardoning, purgation, release, reprieve, respite, tolerance, toleration, willingness to forgive
Associated concepts: clemency by the Governor, clemency by the President of the United States, Executive clemency
See also: benevolence, charity, condonation, consideration, grace, humanity, indulgence, lenience, pardon

CLEMENCY. The disposition to treat with leniency. See Mercy; Pardon.

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Abbott, a staunch supporter of the death penalty, said he granted clemency for Whitaker for many reasons: The triggerman in the murders got a lesser sentence; his father, a victim of the crime, passionately opposed the execution, and Whitaker had voluntarily waived all claims to parole in exchange, meaning he will spend the rest of his life behind bars.
The petitioner, whose son Sahibzada Umar Khan was killed in the attack, requested the court to direct the respondents, including the federal government, to refrain from giving clemency to Ehsan.
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Barrister Ameerullah Khan Chamkani submitted before the bench that the Ministry of Interior had given one line reply which shows the government had kept the former TTP spokesman as a guest and would soon grant clemency to him.
This new partnership greatly expands the Governor's clemency initiative founded in 2015 that provided pro bono clemency petition services to individuals with criminal records or incarcerated in state prison.
Morva's lawyers had filed a clemency petition with Virginia Gov.
In the midst of the recent presidential campaign, the president's clemency power was a low priority issue.
Of particular interest is the wise instruction to anticipate and discuss the position of the following parties on the application for clemency, including the state attorney, arresting officer, victim, and probation officer.
Former Israeli President Moshe Qatsav has submitted a clemency request to current President Reuven Rivlin.
Another part of the solution will have to be clemency on a massive scale: pardons, which all but expunge a criminal record; commutations, which shorten a prison sentence; parole; geriatric and compassionate release; and retroactive sentencing reform.
The Constitution entrusts the president with the all-but-unlimited ability to forgive federal crimes, but presidents have become increasingly reluctant to wield their clemency power (Crouch 2009, 2).
MalacaAaAaAeA~ang on Friday said the list of inmates to be granted executi clemency is still undergoing thorough review.