combination

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Combination

In Criminal Law, an agreement between two or more people to act jointly for an unlawful purpose; a conspiracy. In patent law, the joining together of several separate inventions to produce a new invention.

An illegal combination in restraint of trade, defined under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, is one in which the conspirators agree expressly or impliedly to use devices such as price-fixing agreements to eliminate competition in a certain locality, e.g., when a group of furniture manufacturers refuse to deliver goods to stores that sell their goods for under a certain price.

In patent law a combination is distinguishable from an aggregation in that it is a joint operation of elements that produces a new result as opposed to a mere grouping together of old elements. This is important in determining whether or not something is patentable, since no valid patent can extend to an aggregation.

combination

noun affiliation, aggregate, amalgamation, arrangement, assemblage, bringing tooether, coadjutorship, coalescence, coalition, collection, composition, compound, coniunctio, congregation, conjunction, consolidation, fusion, incorporation, junction, merger, pool, societas, unification, union
Associated concepts: combination in restraint of trade, combination to restrict competition and commerce, combination trademark, combined offense, combined property, illegal combination, patentable combination
See also: accession, affiliation, alliance, assemblage, association, band, cabal, cartel, centralization, coalescence, coalition, collection, compact, company, compilation, composition, concert, confederacy, connection, consolidation, consortium, conspiracy, contact, content, contribution, corporation, enterprise, federation, incorporation, integration, joinder, league, melange, merger, organization, partnership, pool, relationship, selection, sodality, solution, structure, substance, union, unity

COMBINATION. A union of different things. A patent may be taken out for a new combination of existing machinery, or machines. See 2 Mason, 112; and Composition of matter.
     2. By combination is understood, in a bad sense, a union of men for the purpose of violating the law.

References in periodicals archive ?
In order to assess how much a single model influenced the combinatory spatial output, the number of common nodes for the remaining three and then two models were calculated.
Strategic management by business metrics: An application of combinatory metrics.
Last, there seems to be some sex-related combinatory differences.
They also analyzed the combinatory effects of LAE and weak organic acids on E.
To identify biomarkers that can evaluate or predict the onset of certain diseases, it therefore may be more promising to use a combinatory approach that associates the presence of a specific, predisposing genetic variant with the presence of altered metabolite patterns in the blood.
Leary's purpose is to show that the neglect of bands like the Goose Island Ramblers and the many kindred polkabillies of the Upper Midwest demands a basic reassessment of what constitutes American folk music, with its multiethnic combinatory interactions and creative ferments.
Since young athletes are often encouraged to perform static stretching prior to resistance exercise (Martens, 2004), it is intriguing as to whether plyometric training and resistance training (without pre-event static stretching) can provide combinatory effects in younger populations.
Second, Sarkar engages the mathematical arguments regarding specified complexity (chapters 5-8), arguing that William Dembski's "explanatory filter," which concludes to design by eliminating regularity and chance explanations, does not adequately account for combinatory variables (such as blind variation and selection).
Thus, it seems that reducing dependence upon mindsets may provide access to a vastly increased depth and breadth of combinatory possibilities and blind variations.
If not, the optimal solution cannot be dealt with due to the combinatory explosion in the number of possible solutions.
RGGERS, On two theorems of combinatory analysis and some allied identities, in Proc.
Thence the 'rights' of human rights are found to operate in that same combinatory dimension, making the universalized 'human' operative.