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By not using the term "infringe," the drafters of Bill C-51 appear to seek conferral of a power exceeding that characteristic of legislation whose Charter-adverse qualities can be justified under s 1.
Considering conferrals to all minority groups, combined (African-American, Asian American, Native American and Hispanic, with multiracial added in 2013), the large, public four-year associate colleges, all of which are located in large urban areas, had the highest rates of minority representation among associate degree recipients in 2003, but this representation level declined by 4 percentage points in the next 10 years.
In last year's Top 100 analysis, we illustrated how the recovery was manifest in slight downturns in numbers of typically vocationally oriented certificate conferrals from their record high levels in 2010 and 2011.
Although the numbers are still relatively small, the table shows that the largest percentage growth in award conferrals is among the "four-year" institutions within the Public Associates category.
Academic year 2009-10 was a banner year for associate degree conferrals in the United States.
As many traditional community colleges have expanded their offerings to include some bachelor's degrees, several for-profit online providers have emerged as leading institutions in associate degree conferrals, with the University of Phoenix topping the list with 33,449 degrees conferred in just one year through its online campus.
We have chosen to reduce these to seven categories for examining master's and first professional degree conferrals and five categories for examining doctoral degree conferrals.
Over the last 10 years, the traditional community college has lost about 9 percentage points in the market share of associate degree conferrals, declining from roughly three quarters (74 percent) to under two-thirds of the total (65 percent).
The trends are also positive for first professional and master's degree conferrals (especially for master's degrees awarded to Black students) but the increases do not outpace non-minority conferrals enough to produce significant declines in the representation gap.
These choices may differ across institutions but all institutions must report their conferrals and awards to the federal government using the standard categories.
We begin our trend analysis by examining the ten-year trend for associate degree and one- and two-year certificate conferrals as illustrated in Display 1.