0: how the magnitude of an unmeasured binary confounder
might affect the propensity score- adjusted HRs of Table 4 ([double dagger]) Adjusted HR [P.
We considered the following eight models: no explanatory variable, constituents only, community-level confounders
only, or both constituents and community-level confounders
as explanatory variables, all with and without spatially correlated errors.
We estimated the conditional probability of treatment given the identified confounders
stated above using the following four methods: bagging, RFC, a single classification tree, and logistic regression.
Based on the observed associations, we used event rates of 16 and 20 percent for DES and BMS recipients, respectively, and assumed a single, binary hypothetical confounder
with prevalence of 0.
Recently, many studies have treated ozone not only as a confounder
of the temperature-mortality relationship, but also have investigated to what extent ozone confounds this relation.
Finally, we demonstrated the effect of omitting interaction terms from the logistic model in two data sets with one continuous confounder
We agree with Dorea that organic mercury may be an important coexposure, acting potentially as a confounder
and/or effect modifier of the manganese--lead association with neurodevelopment.
Another study confounder
is the fact that the vaccine works better in some years than in others, a phenomenon believed to be caused at least in part by how good a "match" there is between the vaccine and the season's circulating strains.
We thought initially this was an important confounder
As with any observational epidemiologic study, it is important to continue to search for potential confounders
and other risk factors.
Although subjects with intermittent insomnia appeared to be more likely to die than no-insomnia subjects, further adjustments for various confounders
such as body mass index, smoking status, and regular physical activity, as well as other confounding factors, eliminated this excess risk due to intermittent insomnia.
Hot flashes are associated with a significant increase in the risk of hip fracture, regardless of age, body mass index, and other confounders
such as smoking, according to analysis of data from the Women's Health Initiative.