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O indio deveria aprender nao apenas que -rico significava copular e mbae certas partes do corpo, mas, sobretudo, que havia interdicao de se falar de sexo explicitamente, mesmo nas situacoes de dialogo em que este era o principal topico, como na parte da confissao referente ao sexto mandamento da Lei de Deus.
Example (22) has a copular, but nonlocative, sentence with a derived adverb tepuke 'provided with a stick'; (23) and (24) have normal verbal (noncopular) sentences.
Thus, although the locative copular construction is quite similar to nominal predicates, it has its own particularities.
The following abbreviations are used in the glosses: ANT = (past) anterior morpheme; CLS = classifier; COMP = complementizer; COP = copular verb; DEM = demonstrative; EMPH = emphatic morpheme; TOP - topic marker; POL = politeness marker; Q = Q-marker; PRN = pronoun equivalent (typically family kinship term); REL = relative clause marker.
the grammatical instances of suspended affixation in copular constructions and constructions involving verbal elements that appear to be finite main verbs [are] a coordination of adjectives or participles, with the inflected copula cliticized to the coordinate structure.
Using an inverted copular sentence with the predicative before the copula and the referential subject after it, the English version seems to pay tribute to the different discursive relevance of the informational elements in the sentence.
We looked at the topicalization of arguments in copular sentences separately, as they are associated with an inversion of subject and verb in English as well.
As pointed out by Sybesma, pao(-de) 'run(-de)' can be analyzed as a copular verb, complemented by a small clause (after 'he' moves to the subject position of the matrix clause, we have 'he runs very fast').
That this animacy distribution is role related, rather than function (subject-object) related, can be seen in the very different distribution found for copular (stative) verbs, (4) for which only 42% of the Swedish subjects and 45% of the English subjects were animate.
Infinitival copular complement clauses in English: explaining the predominance of passive matrix verbs.
The authors provide morphosyntactic evidence to support their view of the Present as an "unspecified" tense: from a morphological point of view, it is often an unmarked form; syntactically, in languages like Latin or Russian, the present tense differs from other tenses in that it need not be overtly expressed by the copula in copular sentences.
7) is an example of a copular sentence where the past participle is categorially an adjective.