The influence of a good internal working climate that is appropriate for entrepreneurship is often mentioned in literature (Collins, 2001; Lumpkin & Dess, 1996; Morris, Kuratko, & Covin
, 2008; Stevenson & Jarillo, 1990).
2005; Zahra and Covin
1995), as firms that oppose uncertainty via innovation often perform better than those which ignore its presence (Garg et al.
Since 1980s, scholars (Miller 1987; Zahra, Covin
1995; Jones et al.
These were in consonance with activities recommended by Covin
(1990) for hostile environments.
and Slevin (1989) report that managers tend towards low-risk projects.
For example, Covin
and Miles (1999) indicated that the entrepreneur was an innovator who addressed market needs with new business models, technologies, services, and products.
Their article adapts the Covin
and Slevin entrepreneurial orientation scale to measure the adoption of entrepreneurship by a social enterprise, and develops a scale that combines a Vincentian-based focus to serve the poor with a propensity to take a more entrepreneurial approach toward business as a measure of a social value orientation (SVO).
I also interviewed JPAS original and present editorial board member Emeritus Professor David Covin
about his work at California State University at Sacramento, his previous post as the former co-chair of the Boulder, Colorado chapter of CORE, founder of the Black Student Union at Washington State University (WSU), and as one of the founders of the Black Studies program at WSU.
Schumpeter, 1934; Jennings and Young, 1990; Covin
and Miles, 1999).
89) adapted from a measure of entrepreneurial orientation by Anderson, Covin
, and Slevin (2009).
Some of these factors include transformational leadership (Bass & Riggio, 2006; Whittington & Goodwin, 2001; Boerner, Eisenbeiss, & Griesser, 2007; Garcia-Morales, Matias-Reche, & Hurtado-Torres, 2008), organizational citizenship behavior (Organ, 1988; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1997; Min-Huei, 2004), organizational learning (Arthur & Huntley, 2005; Chich-Jen, Wang, & Fu-Jin, 2009; Chaveerug & Ussahawanitchakit, 2008), and entrepreneurship (Zahra & Covin
, 1995; Dyduch, 2008; Covin
& Miles, 1999).
In this work we build off a growing consensus of entrepreneurship as having behavioral components, captured principally by the elements of innovation, proactiveness, aggressive competitiveness, obsession with growth, and calculated risk taking (Aldrich & Zimmer, 1986; Bygrave, 1989; Bygrave & Hofer, 1991; Cooper, Fotta & Woo, 1995; Covin
& Slevin, 1991; Dess & Lumpkin, 1996; Gartner, 1985; Khandwalla, 1977; Kirby, 1971; McCline, Bhat, & Baj, 2001; Miller & Friesen, 1983; Stevenson, Roberts, & Grousbeck, 1989).