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Smith and Townsend (1907) were among the earlier major investigators of crown gall disease (Braun, 1954, 1982).
Nucleic acid hybridization studies to determine the genetic involvement in crown gall tumors and the nature of TIP were made, but no concrete evidence of bacterial DNA sequences in sterile crown gall tissue was found (Butcher, 1977).
Whereas the initial phase of knowledge about crown gall tumors was concerned with the general external description and cell culture without exogenous hormones, the second major phase, in the 1970s and into the 1980s, described a unique process in which a DNA component of a bacterial plasmid was transferred into the nucleus of an eukaryote organism to produce the hormones for plant-cell growth and opines for bacterial consumption.
Experimental evidence of the essential role of T-DNA in the transformation process in crown gall disease was published in 1980 by several scientific groups (Braun, 1982; Yadav et al.
Research on the main details of crown gall disease may be completed in the 2000s, but major information is still needed regarding the incorporation of the T-strand into the plant nucleus and the subsequent steps producing plant hormones and opines in the plant cytoplasm.
Much is now known about crown gall disease in many dicotyledonous plants, but many aspects of the infection process are still unknown.
Figure 2 gives a general scheme of the sequence of reactions in crown gall disease leading up to the formation of the nodule on the external surface of the stem.
Crown Gall is a neoplastic disease of plants induced by specific strains of A.
Galsky AG, Wilsey JP, Powell RG (1980) Crown gall tumor disc bioassay: a possible aid in the detection of compounds with antitumor activity.
McLaughlin JL (1991) Crown gall tumors on potato discs and bine shrimp lethality: Two single bioassays for plant screening and fractionation.
If crown gall has appeared in your garden, keep budding knives, grafting tools, and pruning tools clean; sterilize between cuts by dipping them in methyl alcohol or a solution of 1 part sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) to 10 parts water.
Infected nursery stock was once the source of most crown gall, but now nurseries take great pains to offer clean stock.