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Moreover, once cued, the attention-induced local change in neural signals seems to last for a few seconds.
Experiment 2 aimed at contrasting these two views by testing whether IOR would be observed when attention is disengaged from the cued location endogenously.
The IOR effect should only be observed at cued locations where participants do not expect the target to appear (from where they would have disengaged attention).
For example, if the target is cued by an invalid stimulus, the outcome is an increase in saccadic latency.
First, considering these explanations within the context of Posner general framework of exogenous attention being biphasic, with inhibition following a previous shift of attention towards the cued location, if the likelihood of a distractor set the system to prevent orienting, then one might expect null cueing effects to occur rather than IOR.
In these studies, large and long-lasting facilitation effects are observed, but in addition, Spatial Stroop interference is systematically reduced on cued trials as compared to no cue or oppositely cued trials (Funes & Lupianez, 2003; Lupianez & Funes, 2005; Funes, Lupianez & Milliken, 2007; see Funes, Lupianez & Milliken, 2005, for a recent review of this literature).
It is also important to note that two of the participants detected false targets at the cued location when in fact nothing was presented at that location.
Immediately following the first erroneous trial, a cued object was paired with an uncued high-priority target (the nuclear weapon).
Therefore we compared the measured values of ln[beta] for cued instances with values of ln[beta] for uncued instances (for both targets and false alarms).
In the present experiment we evaluated the effect of a flanker inside and outside the cued shapes.
On the other hand, the decrease of IOR across practice might be due to an increase in the effectiveness of the cue (thus increasing facilitatory effects), or to the fact that practiced subjects tend to maintain attention at the cued location on some trials.