dna

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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
High throughput sequencing information sets contain thousands or more Deoxyribonucleic acid groupings, and subsequently the Xm likewise has thousands or more cases.
Epigenetic: Referring to heritable changes in phenotype or gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence.
This is in bold contrast to deoxyribonucleic acid and protein concentrations, which show that when zymogens have damaged the acinar tissue, the protein synthesis has greatly decreased.
IG Quetta Abdul Razaq Cheema on Wednesday told the media that samples of both terrorists' body have been sent to the Punjab forensic lab for Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) along with footage of Closed-circuit television (CCTV, finger prints and explosives.
They tested the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in more than 25,000 people with FH and in more than 38,000 relatives without this condition.
Her discovery of the structure of DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid helped her colleagues understand how genetic information is passed from parents to children.
At the dawn of the 1980s, Ogilvie and a team of chemists built the Gene Machine, the first device to provide fast and inexpensive synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequences.
As every life form is constituted from genetically encoded information and it is directed forward from Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to Ribonucleic Acid (RNA), and results into protein i.
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid - is the complex chemical that carries genetic information.
Del Barrio's team used the D-loop mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) approach in measuring the genetic link between samples taken from carabaos in the Philippines and in China.
PGD involves taking a single cell from an IVF embryo and delicately testing the minute quantities of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) it contains for the presence of a known mutation for genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis.
Crick and Watson of the United States discovered the double-helix structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, in 1953 while working in Cavendish Laboratory in Britain.

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