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If a language has a number of adaptation affixes that are not derivationally productive, one may be tempted to speak of productivity ranks of adaptation affixes.
In the case of substitution, the sources of borrowings are treated as derivationally transparent and corresponding DAs of the recipient language are selected.
This includes numerous derivationally complex words and low-frequency, semantically abstract items, metaphorical extensions of earlier-acquired core meanings, and words pertaining to school-related fields of knowledge.
Koch (2005) offers the following interpretation of the interplay between figure and ground in the profiling of contiguous concepts, linguistically encoded by derivationally related lexical items,
In Kastovsky's words (1992: 294) much of the OE vocabulary is derivationally related by productive word-formation patterns, and, (.
not, as many have thought, derivationally related to) the root [square root (khan-)] 'dig'; but as for nakula-, if this had once been *nakhula (vel sim.
In this connection, another peculiar consequence of treating the examples in (4) as related by non-directional redundancy rules in the lexicon, and not as derivationally connected, should be mentioned, viz, the analysis of prefixations such as
Derivationally, moreover, all verbs in Hebrew are formed in one of five binyan conjugations--termed morphological patterns or prosodic templates--which serve, inter alia, to express valence-changing processes (Bat-El 2011, Berman 1993, 2003).
C2 (the "specifier" of standard X-bar theory) will always be derivationally and structurally more remote (attached "later," and "higher"), and will asymmetrically c-command and precede H and C1, from which universal Spec-Head order follows.
In words such as cumpleanos, the word ends in the plural morpheme derivationally speaking (cumple + anos `complete + years') but is used to denote both the plural and singular.
At this point, one may well wonder what is the empirical difference between obtaining transitive and intransitive variants from a single scene and derivationally relating the two variants, for if one chooses to derive the intransitive variant from the transitive as in Levin and Rappaport Hovav (1995), then the two approaches are very similar in that the "base" is causative, be it a scene or a sense.