The direct effect
of Brexit does not seem substantial, even as we expect that domestic financial markets will experience volatility and huge swings in capital flows in the short term due to uncertainty.
This exception, which contains three independent clauses, provides that a foreign state is not immune from jurisdiction 'in any case' in which: the action is based  upon a commercial activity carried on in the United States by the foreign state; or  upon an act performed in the United States in connection with a commercial activity of the foreign state elsewhere; or  upon an act outside the territory of the United States in connection with a commercial activity of the foreign state elsewhere and that act causes a direct effect
in the United States.
Path analysis permits the partitioning of the correlation coefficient into its components, one component being the path coefficient that measures the direct effect
of a predictor variable upon its response variable; the second component being the indirect effect(s) of a predictor variable on the response variable through another predictor variable.
The radiative forcing from aerosol-radiation interactions (RFari) encompasses radiative effects from anthropogenic aerosols before any adjustment takes place and corresponds to what is usually referred to as the aerosol direct effect
Gentle, efficient and precise, the Direct Effect
features 15 customizable styles as part of the Rollerball, Soft-Slope and Pro-Tip series.
Since the direct effect
was stronger, workaholics tended to have fewer absences, on balance.
Ownership changes in companies occur all the time and this has no direct effect
on the position of the staff employed in the company.
If ozone is in fact on the causal pathway between temperature and mortality (which we posit below), controlling for ozone in a statistical model estimates the controlled direct effect
of temperature on mortality, under certain assumptions (Petersen et al.
This was most important in Model 2, where the direct effect
of PA on RF was examined, as was the indirect effect of RAN on RF through the PA factor (this also provided a test of the relationship between RAN and PA) within one model.
The issue of direct effect
of EU regulations was highlighted for the first time in connection with the EEC (European Economic Community) Treaty provision, the former article 12, and present article 25 from TFEU (Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union), in the case known as the Van Gend en Loos.
To illustrate, the causal questions focus on decomposing the total policy effect into the indirect effect mediated by peer composition change and the direct effect
of the policy for the subpopulation of lower achieving students.
It was observed that the strongest one of these effects was direct effect