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The first two treatments correspond to the social approval and disapproval schemes, whereas the last treatment explores the combined effect of these two schemes.
The individual member can do so by anonymously assigning either disapproval or approval points to each member (but cannot assign both types of points to the same group member).
The data from the disapproval treatment reveal that the disapproval points raise contributions to the group account significantly relative to the baseline treatment where no such rating exists.
In a replication of this study, Polirstok and Greer (1986) found significant increases in the number of social approvals and decreases in the number of disapprovals emitted for four 9th grade low achieving students when tokens were implemented with peer tutoring.
These three participants were chosen because they had emitted high rates of disapprovals and/or low rates of approvals during baseline.
The dependent variables were social approvals and social disapprovals during peer tutoring sessions and unstructured free time.
If the person disapproving the draft standard agrees with the working group's reasoning for not changing, one of two things can happen: the person can change their vote to approve; or the standard (assuming it still passed the committee vote) can move forward with the disapproval and voter's agreement to move forward noted.
First students are required to record their approvals and disapprovals during a "standard" period of time for at least one hour a day for several days as a baseline.
There are no behavioral definitions of approvals or disapprovals.
Furthermore, the results support the claim that five to one is an effective ratio of approvals to disapprovals across a wide range of situations.
During the formal panel meeting, and only in the presence of an assigned NIDRR panel manager, the applications are discussed for scientific-technical merit and ranked for approval or disapproval.
When identifying the one singular deficiency per application that was most responsible for disapproval, poor conceptualization of problem/approach led with 10, followed by a tie for second place between inadequate control of variables and research design errors[7].