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When individuals increase their ratio of approvals to disapprovals to five to one, the behaviors and affect of all involved invariably improves.
Therefore, rather than increase appropriate behaviors, disapprovals of "inappropriate" behavior may actually punish approximations toward desirable behaviors.
To meet the 5 to 1 ratio of approvals to disapprovals teachers occasionally "lower their standards" so that they can praise a behavior that formally they would have disapproved of.
During the formal panel meeting, and only in the presence of an assigned NIDRR panel manager, the applications are discussed for scientific-technical merit and ranked for approval or disapproval.
When identifying the one singular deficiency per application that was most responsible for disapproval, poor conceptualization of problem/approach led with 10, followed by a tie for second place between inadequate control of variables and research design errors[7].
5 percent) were statistically analyzed to determine deficiencies significant in warranting disapproval.
No disapprovals are given for incorrect responses, because "disapprovals function as attention for undesirable behavior and interfere with the development of positive classroom practices" (Singer-Dudek & Keohane, in press).
The dependent variables were social approvals and social disapprovals during peer tutoring sessions and unstructured free time.
Data were collected for the daily responses of tutees, learn unit presentation of tutors, tutors' approvals and disapprovals of tutees during tutoring sessions, and approvals and disapprovals during free-play time.
If the person disapproving the draft standard agrees with the working group's reasoning for not changing, one of two things can happen: the person can change their vote to approve; or the standard (assuming it still passed the committee vote) can move forward with the disapproval and voter's agreement to move forward noted.
Despite the standard economic theory's dismissive prediction regarding the effects of social approval and disapproval (with the exception of a few studies cited below), we experimentally investigate whether they are capable of alleviating the free-rider incentive in a group environment that is substantially prone to opportunistic individual behavior.
The first two treatments correspond to the social approval and disapproval schemes, whereas the last treatment explores the combined effect of these two schemes.