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These studies, summarized in Table 1, serve best to provide a range of dislodgment rate percentage by which other agencies can benchmark their PICC programs.
In the other studies listed in Table 1, it was difficult to ascertain securement methods and their impact on dislodgment rates in five of the reports.
If agency "A" placed 20 PICCs and 10 become dislodged, that would mean a 50% dislodgment rate;
If agency "B" placed 100 PICCs and 10 became dislodged, you would calculate a 10% dislodgment rate.
If we compare the dislodgment rates of the Markel and Reynen (1990) program and the Frey (1995) program using the per 1,000 catheter day method, we note the following results.
As described previously, the probability of dislodgment can be affected by wave breaking, which places an upper limit on the height of waves.
For the calculation of dislodgment in the swash zone, I use a step depth of 15 m, a value measured at exposed sites on Tatoosh Island, Washington.
Expected dislodgment in the two susceptible algae (M.
leptorhynchos (not shown) has a dislodgment probability of virtually 1 even at a yearly average significant wave height of only 1 m, and the probability of dislodgment for M.
First, my predictions of the probability of dislodgment can be compared qualitatively to the abundances of organisms in nature.
If instead it is assumed that the crest of the breaking wave directly contacts the bed, a higher rate of dislodgment is predicted.
For example, the predictions made here concern the probability of dislodgment of individual mussels, where individuals are assumed to act independently.