dna


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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
1 Top ten countries and the percentages of individuals who participated in DNA RNA 2014 Figure 2.
Among them: Georgia Dunston, founding director of the National Human Genome Center at Howard University; Bruce Jackson, founder of the African-American DNA Roots Project; and Charles Crutchfield, a clinical dermatologist who used genetic research to develop a treatment for psoriasis.
A unifying concept central to a modern, molecular view of epigenetics postulates that the pattern of modifications (both of DNA and of histone proteins themselves) provides information content that instructs the enzymes integral to nuclear physiology (Jaenisch and Bird 2003; Strahl and Allis 2000).
These types of technologies may prove to be extremely powerful if DNA methylation diagnostics are to be used to improve patient outcome and as part of novel strategies in clinical trials.
What makes DNA a good research tool for tracing dogs' ancestry?
This book is not for the novice scientist, as it does not describe basic DNA amplification fundamentals; rather, it is directed at those with a solid background in molecular biology who desire knowledge of cuttingedge applications.
Several police agencies in Los Angeles, Alameda, Orange and San Francisco counties have already turned in to the state DNA samples they collected.
The rigidity of the octahedron comes not only from its overall geometry but also from the brawn of its 12 DNA struts.
Through blood work, scientists will also obtain information on another form of DNA called the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).
DNA is composed of four building blocks, called bases, represented by the letters A, C, 0, and T.
The mutant cells had lower activity of DNA repair as shown by determination of activities of DNA repair enzymes.
DNA testing was first used in Britain in 1986 to prosecute serial rapist and murderer Colin Pitchfork.