Republicans who were disposed to criticize them as corrupt supported what has been termed an explosion of earmarking
before reversing field and banning the process.
that it may not be a simple matter to categorize earmarking
The analysis backing up Savage's overall assessment of academic earmarking
is convincing in some respects but not in others.
is a statutory method of locking in distributive gains.
In addition to inviting fraudulent behavior, earmarking
diverts lawmakers' attention from important national business, like controlling the nation's ballooning $15.
Since Savage dates academic earmarking
back to 1977, when Tufts University sought and received the first earmark for research, we should be able to tell whether earmarks gave the recipients traction in competing for federal research funds.
In addition to politicizing research, earmarking
contributes to cynical, self-serving behavior within the academy.
It has become increasingly obvious that pork-barrel earmarking
has a corruptive influence over the institution of Congress and its members.
The process of earmarking
revenues is one as old as the political process itself, and a community like Lancaster submits requests and relies on their elected officials in Washington to make a determination on the appropriateness of the request," LaSala said.
Critics complain that the agency does not need the water, that it is earmarking
the water for The Newhall Land and Farming Company's 21,000-home Newhall Ranch development and that it has not held any public hearings on the purchase.
Emerson's assertion, a 2009 Harvard study found that earmarking
actually costs districts private-sector jobs and damages their economies.
Pete Wilson is calling for spending $685 million more on schools in the coming year, earmarking
money for math books, science equipment and $10,000 bonuses for teachers who earn national certification.