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1-2 (136-38) led me to reconsider, and rehear, how often the word is used in the play, in at least a dozen significant examples that not only add one more echoic effect to the language of the play, but also act thematically in the same way that iterative imagery adds to theme.
First, we evaluated a requirement to make an echoic response to the foreign dictated name presented in each listener trial.
The RMIA was combined with the echoic to mand and echoic to tact teaching operations for verbal behavior (Williams & Greer, 1993).
Whereas the conditions that might evoke a single mand, tact, or echoic response are fairly straightforward, the variables controlling any particular intraverbal response can be numerous.
Once baseline was established, the teaching condition was implemented in which the instructor continued to promote mands using incidental teaching procedures and vocally prompted mands using an echoic procedure.
1999) found that teaching the mand operant induced sound production and facilitated the acquisition of echoic behavior in young children with autism and language delays.
crying, grabbing, reaching), the experimenter recorded it as an error and provided an echoic correction by modeling the correct response.
Once an individual has an orienting response towards an item, or a listener response, an echoic response may occur.
An example of this is reliance on an established echoic repertoire to begin to teach a mand for a particular item.
Skinner (1957) described six elementary verbal functions for the speaker, including (1) echoics, (2) mands, (3) tacts, (4) autoclitics, (5) intraverbals, and (6) textual responding.
For example, echoic behavior should precede intraverbal training, such as answering social questions (e.
An overview of the results showed that the cumulative frequency of the mand, tact, echoic, and intraverbal categories emitted by the child increased gradually and simultaneously until approximately 20 months of age (see Figure 1).