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Efflux pumps that contribute to resistance to many classes of antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones, have been described in a number of clinically important bacteria such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and others.
The efflux transporter cell lines consist of three individual knockouts (MDR1, MRP2 and BCRP) and double knockouts (mdr1:MRP2)(mdr1:BCRP and MRP2) that are delivered to the customer in a convenient transwell plate format.
Comparative in vivo efficacy of meropenem, imipenem, and cefepime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa expressing MexA-MexBOprM efflux pumps.
If, on the other hand, drug A induces an efflux protein, then drug B would be "kicked out" at a greater rate than normal because the efflux system would be working in overdrive.
An accurate assessment of transporter interactions must take into account the cellular permeability of the test compound under test, as this will determine the appropriate in vitro model to use (generally, only sufficiently permeable molecules will be subject to efflux unless they undergo active uptake into the cell).
Effect of efflux inhibitors on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels of OFL : To determine the extent of the efflux pump mediated ofloxacin resistance in M.
aeruginosa is inherently resistant to certain antimicrobial agents by three different mechanisms including decreased permeability of the outer cell membrane preventing the agent from getting into the cell, the use of mechanical efflux pumps which actively pump the antimicrobial agent out of the cell and the production of enzymes that degrade the antimicrobial agent destroying its activity.
The newly found polymorphism also limits clopidogrel's activity and affects a cell membrane protein that controls drug efflux out of intestinal enterocytes.
It has been reported that efflux transport of CoQ10 is mediated by a protein in the membrane of cells called P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cells.
The statue stood on a pedestal which was cracked on all sides due to the efflux of time.
In addition, fluoroquinolone efflux also contributes to resistance (8).
Targeting drug efflux pumps (EPs) with chemical inhibitors has become a popular research objective aimed at finding efficacious treatment for extensively resistant (XDR) infections.