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Critics of Rogers's work have argued that client-centered therapy is superficial (De Mott, 1979; Friedenberg, 1971), unworkable with some populations, and unmindful of multicultural and feminist issues (Usher, 1989; Waterhouse, 1993), the social context, and recent advances in behavioral, drug, and alternative therapies; that Rogers's views on human nature are unrealistically optimistic and underestimate human evil (May, 1982); that encounter groups and humanistic psychology have fostered widespread selfishness, narcissism, and moral permissiveness (Coulson, 1988, 1989; Lasch, 1979); and that Rogers's experiments with organizational change were naive (Kirschenbaum, 1979) and counterproductive (Coulson, 1988).
A written and videotaped curriculum specifically designed to reach habitual offenders with chronic drug abuse histories, the curriculum involves encounter groups, seminars, video playback, psychodrama, and written and oral exercises.
Carl Rogers on encounter groups, New York, NY: Harper.
Although multiple methodologies (gestalt therapy, neurolinguistic programming, encounter groups and group therapy, psychodrama and more) are discussed, the role and value of hypnosis receives especial focus.
The other striking difference between that country and this, was that nowhere did I encounter groups of young people hanging around aimlessly on street corners drinking alcohol, smoking, and using foul language.
On one hand, there are community members who do not want to encounter groups of people downtown who sit on the sidewalks and public spaces, often with sleeping bags and other equipment.
Encounter groups represent the most significant, non-military Jewish presence in Palestinian areas of the West Bank since before the second intifada.
Of course the resort cleaned up its act to became the Esalen Institute, home of "the American awakening" and birthplace of the "human potential" movement where the attractions of Zen manifested themselves in Rolfing, meditation, and encounter groups.
But when a heroin addict kicked drugs after participating in Dederich's brutally confrontational encounter groups, the founder and other members began living communally and promoting Synanon as an addiction cure.
Some women wanted less hostility in the encounter groups, others wanted more female-only encounter groups, and still others wanted to keep parts of the program coed to help them learn how to relate to the opposite sex in nonsexual ways.
In his depiction of the deteriorating social impulses of Americans in his bestseller Bowling Alone, Robert Putnam reminds us of three counter-trends that suggest new social power: grassroots political movements, new telecommunications possibilities (reminding us that the telephone was originally seen as a threat to the neighborhood, but merely redefined it) and the explosion of therapy and encounter groups.