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Those are endogenous opiates (enkephalins, endorphins) of the middle brain which decrease neurotransmitter release in afferent path of pain through the downstream paths, directly or indirectly, over serotonin to distal part of the first neurone of afferent path of pain, by presynaptic inhibition over ^ and partly kappa receptors.
It has been reported that the endogenous opiates released during running may cause smaller pupils, i.
As was noted earlier in this paper, exposure to a series of inescapable shocks has been found to produce deficits in a variety of learning tasks, alterations in the levels of numerous neurotransmitters, and an activation of endogenous opiates and immunosuppression (see Peterson, Maier, & Seligman, 1993, for a review of this literature).
A primary way that pain modulation occurs is through the endogenous opiate system, first described in 1975 by Hughes and associates.
8,11] This led to the theory that calcitonin may potentiate the body's endogenous opiate system and thereby relieve pain.