entrapment


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Entrapment

The act of government agents or officials that induces a person to commit a crime he or she is not previously disposed to commit.

Entrapment is a defense to criminal charges when it is established that the agent or official originated the idea of the crime and induced the accused to engage in it. If the crime was promoted by a private person who has no connection to the government, it is not entrapment. A person induced by a friend to sell drugs has no legal excuse when police are informed that the person has agreed to make the sale.

The rationale underlying the defense is to deter law enforcement officers from engaging in reprehensible conduct by inducing persons not disposed to commit crimes to engage in criminal activity. In their efforts to obtain evidence and combat crime, however, officers are permitted to use some deception. For example, an officer may pretend to be a drug addict in order to apprehend a person suspected of selling drugs. On the other hand, an officer cannot use chicanery or Fraud to lure a person to commit a crime the person is not previously willing to commit. Generally, the defense is not available if the officer merely created an opportunity for the commission of the crime by a person already planning or willing to commit it.

The defense of entrapment frequently arises when crimes are committed against willing victims. It is likely to be asserted to counter such charges as illegal sales of liquor or narcotics, Bribery, Sex Offenses, and gambling. Persons who commit these types of crimes are most easily apprehended when officers disguise themselves as willing victims.

Most states require a defendant who raises the defense of entrapment to prove he or she did not have a previous intent to commit the crime. Courts determine whether a defendant had a predisposition to commit a crime by examining the person's behavior prior to the commission of the crime and by inquiring into the person's past criminal record if one exists. Usually, a predisposition is found if a defendant was previously involved in criminal conduct similar to the crime with which he or she is charged.

When an officer supplies an accused with a tool or a means necessary to commit the crime, the defense is not automatically established. Although this factor may be considered as evidence of entrapment, it is not conclusive. The more important determination is whether the official planted the criminal idea in the mind of the accused or whether the idea was already there.

Entrapment is not a constitutionally required defense, and, consequently, not all states are bound to provide it as a defense in their criminal codes. Some states have excluded it as a defense, reasoning that anyone who can be talked into a criminal act cannot be free from guilt.

entrapment

n. in criminal law, the act of law enforcement officers or government agents to induce or encourage a person to commit a crime when the potential criminal expresses a desire not to go ahead. The key to entrapment is whether the idea for the commission or encouragement of the criminal act originated with the police or government agents instead of with the "criminal." Entrapment, if proved, is a defense to a criminal prosecution. The accused often claims entrapment in so-called "stings" in which undercover agents buy or sell narcotics, prostitutes' services, or arrange to purchase goods believed to be stolen. The factual question is: Would Johnny Begood have purchased the drugs if not pressed by the narc?

See: entanglement, involvement

entrapment

encouraging a person to commit an offence to establish a prosecution. It is not a defence in the UK. However, the authorities should not commit crimes to trap the criminals. In the USA there has long been established a defence of entrapment where undercover police positively promote a crime that would not otherwise have occurred. The defence will not, however, be competent where policemen have merely joined an illegal practice - for example, seeking to be supplied with heroin while in the company of drug addicts with the same purpose.
References in periodicals archive ?
In concluding that judicial disapproval of police conduct was an outcome of the exclusion of evidence rather than its purpose and that mitigation should be based on the level of culpability of the offender, (62) Badgery-Parker J emphasized that judges should not express such disapproval of police entrapment through the sentencing process.
38) At the level of the knee, the infrapatellar branch is susceptible to entrapment between the prominent edge of the medial femoral condyle and the tendon of the sartorious muscle (Figure 6).
As David Garland explains, the tenets of "differentiation," "pathology," and "interventionism" were at the core of the positivist project, (43) These categories provide a useful framework for exploring positivist thought (and, as argued in Part II below, also help explain the development of the entrapment doctrine).
At trial, defendants asserted the entrapment defense, ealling attention to the fact that Shapiro affirmatively had participated in the plot, even going so far as to point out that without Shapiro's inducement and contribution of P2P, no illegal drugs could have been produced.
Demyelination and remyelination: This has been suggested to be the mechanism underlying the slowing in nerve conduction in chronic nerve compression as seen in entrapment neuropathies.
Gout-related tophi leading to entrapment neuropathy are rare.
Apart from anomaly of uterus the other rare cause which has to be kept in mind is entrapment caused by abnormal contraction (Contracture) between well-formed upper and lower uterine segment.
As conclusions, a composite score was formulated in which, along with the recommendations of the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AAEM) for entrapment neuropathies, the parameters having the highest percentage of changes have been considered.
In this research, multiple linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to investigate the relationships between self-compassion and entrapment.
However, American law has carved out a limited defense, entrapment, whereby the involvement of government agents will provide a basis for an acquittal.
Functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (FPAES) should be considered when symptoms like numbness or tingling are present, with or without paresthesias.