The personality of the exhorter
is assigned primary importance in the manuscript--not necessarily his personal merits but his reputation and capacity for well-considered and convincing rhetoric.
276) Northerners argued that a slaveholding episcopacy would violate the governing antislavery doctrine of the church Discipline, drafted decades earlier before the stunning growth of Methodism in the South, and certainly before Methodist exhorters
had recrafted their approach to slavery or become rich enough to own slaves.
After years of being exposed to remarkable black exhorters
in the West Indies and being influenced by British-Atlantic evangelical thought, Hammet appeared to have had complete confidence in Samuel Hunt's ability to act independently and evangelize people of color in the Bahamas.
Ironically, the gang of exhorters
on the platform at the Philadelphia volunteerism summit -- Clinton, Powell, Bush, Ford -- are among those of one generation who helped create the mess and despair that the creative dissenters of the next generation are now called on, as altruists and idealists, to ease.
In the beginning, as well as in the present, these uneducated or "jackleg" exhorters
were men of wide experience in the ghetto.
34) Members 1819; Probationers 1822-1832; Stewards, Exhorters
, Leaders, Local Preachers 1818-1835; in Methodist Episcopal Church Records, vols.
For example, women were usually assigned roles as Sunday School teachers, exhorters
, secretaries, cooks, and cleaners.
Given the lack of attention given to Early Black evangelical texts by literary scholars, it might be assumed that African American field preachers and exhorters
didn't have much to say about the theological debates of the time, but this conclusion would be a mistake, as the written works of John Marrant illustrate.
Every clergyman present had been provided for in a private residence - even down to the Licensed Exhorters
, who were not really ministers at all when you came to think of it, and who might well thank their stars that the Conference had assembled among such openhanded people.
This tendency manifested itself in George Whitefield's ministry to slaves in Georgia, David Brainerd's mission to the Delaware Indians, and the empowerment of poor, female, and uneducated exhorters
throughout the colonies.
In addition to ministers, many Baptist churches had ruling elders, assistants, exhorters
, deacons, deaconesses, elderesses, and evangelists.
These bodily outbursts lasted for nearly three hours, during which time Edwards prayed with the convicted sinners until his strength was nearly spent, then called for a group of lay exhorters
to minister to the distressed.