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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
The total fecal DNA, DGGE fingerprint for the eighth week for both CON and DFM1 is shown in Figure 1(a).
Analysis of fecal DNA methylation to detect gastrointestinal neo plasia.
Fecal samples are obtained under a roost, and DNA is extracted from individual fecal pellets using the Extractmaster Fecal DNA extraction kit (Epicenter) following the manufacturer's protocol with modifications described in Oyler-McCance & St.
UltraClean[TM] Fecal DNA Kit (MO BIO Laboratories, Inc.
However, an August 2006 BlueCross BlueShield Technology Evaluation Center assessment concluded that "several questions remain before fecal DNA screening can be widely recommended.
The fecal DNA analysis analyzes stool for abnormal cells from polyps or cancers, and checks for genetic mutations as well.
According to Widschwendter, earlier fecal DNA tests for colorectal cancer have looked at gene mutations.
Targeting a shortened fragment of 147 base pairs also increased the percentage of successful samples, because fecal DNA is often degraded.
A Qiagen Fecal DNA Extraction Kit was obtained to isolate the DNA from the feces.
Pre Qualification: Power Fecal Dna Isolation Kit In A Proprietary Item Of Mobio Inc.
The news about a fecal DNA test to spot hemoglobin and mutant DNA that might indicate the presence of colon cancer and adenomatous polyps (benign polyps that could turn cancerous) is great news, but it doesn't eliminate the need for colonoscopies.