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None of these studies looked at whether cave swallows might be impacting clutch size, hatching success, or fledging success of barn swallows.
Unlike some other bird species, which let their offspring dictate the level of care, seabirds appear to weigh up the cost of a chick fledging underweight against the greater cost of losing the chance to breed again "Manx Shearwaters have a breeding life of around forty years, so parents pay a high cost if they end the season too weak to complete their own migration," he added.
After achieving a nine out of 10 fledging rate, we gained permission to proceed with a translocation of STAL chicks in 2008.
Key words: brood size; clutch size, evolution of; fecundity, future; individual optimization; life-history theory; nest predation; offspring recruitment of brood size, fledging size; passerines; reproduction, cost of; survival; Tyrannus tyrannus.
1987), and none has investigated the investment of parents in their offspring throughout the fledging period.
I had the pleasure of observing this fledging process.
The closure of cliffs and associated trails during the nesting season has proven to be successful with over 125 chicks fledging from cliffs in Acadia National Park over the last 20 years.
We used a chi-square analysis to assess the relationship between bleeding and fledging and a binomial probability distribution to determine whether the observed sex ratio differed significantly from the expected sex ratio of 1:1 of nestlings using the following equation: n
Monitoring of newly hatched broods is intense for the first 6 to 8 hours of life, but later the broods are monitored only every 2 to 3 days until fledging.
Keywords: brood reduction; fledging success; food limitation; Forpus passerinus; Green- rumped Parrotlet; growth rate; hatching asynchrony; mark-recapture; parrot; reproductive effort; survival; Venezuela.
1991), timing of fledging and availability of food can influence estimates of survival (Sullivan, 1989; Brown and Roth, 2004).