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Related to frontal plane: sagittal plane, transverse plane
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Studies have mostly focused on determining whether HS can limit ankle inversion in the frontal plane.
The results of the active ROM of the cervical spine showed that only the DCF exercises combined with PTA group achieved a significant increase in the three plane measurements during the follow-up especially the frontal plane ROM.
11,30,31) The hip abduction test described by Nelson-Wong et al (11) ranged from 0 to 3 points and was determined by degrees of frontal plane motion, with zero being no loss of frontal plane motion and 3 points being severe loss of frontal plane motion.
In addition, physiological evidence shows that the gastrocnemii muscles contribute to active control over ML ankle motion to stabilize the body in the frontal plane and may be related to the degree of challenge to stability [30].
The frontal plane P wave axis is directed to the region of +45[degrees] clockwise to +65[degrees].
Based on table 3, after intervention during quiet standing, participants in the experimental group showed a significant reduction in COP displacement in both frontal and sagittal planes, as well as in COP velocity in the frontal plane and total velocity.
The horizontal displacement of the torso along the frontal plane was evaluated using sensors (Polhemus--model Liberty 240/8, Colchester VT, USA) located at C7 and L5/S1.
Ford et al stated that poor knee joint control in the frontal plane might be observed in landing with increased knee valgus motion [16] which can contribute to ligamentous injury.
Lower extremity movement patterns and strength have previously been associated with stress fractures and overuse injuries; however, our study is one of the first to identify dynamic knee rotation and frontal plane angles as important prospective risk factors for lower extremity stress fractures.
One rod in the frontal plane is entered to the every metaphysis of tibia.
Considering the close relationship between posture and stomatognathic system, (3) as well as between form and function, one could infer that occlusal plane inclination in the frontal plane might vary due to changes of the suprascapular unit's general biomechanics.