organisations and countries) in order to test the generalisability
of its findings.
theory has extended reliability theory in a number of ways (Embretson 1996; Embretson & Reise, 2000; Murphy & Davidshofer, 2001; Shavelson, et al 1989).
Furthermore, greater attention to how, why and for whom interventions work can help strengthen the validity of a study, by specifying the links between inputs and outcomes, and improve generalisability
, through a better understanding of the context in which a particular intervention is likely to be effective.
Both these methodologies are inherently weak with respect to generalisability
or, what is referred to in the parlance of experimental design, 'external validity'.
However, although their findings show clearly that one-firm studies are of limited generalisability
, they made no distinction in credit information use between domestic and export sales.
The second concern is related to the generalisability
of the findings.
This study has several limitations: the single centre design and obvious selection bias limit generalisability
13] Moreover, study results often lack generalisability
to routine practice.
The study included only a Chinese population hence the generalisability
of the findings is unclear.
When assessing human behaviour, (Goding and Edwards 2002) pertinently point out that a scientific, positivist criterion of validity and generalisability
is wholly inadequate; failing to factor in societal complexities and a chaotic lifeworld.
The strengths of this study were the inclusion of a heterogeneous sample of elderly with late-onset depression to maximise the generalisability
of findings, and the use of established and validated measures of depression, cognitive function, and functional ability.
The authors recognise that small sample size and enrolment of stable HD patients may limit the generalisability
of the findings and conclusions.