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Related to germ line: germ layer, Germline mutation
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Arguably, permitting germ line alteration of traits (50) may undermine human dignity, and may even violate the United States Constitution.
Germ line interventions, whether for therapy or enhancement (such as to heighten intelligence, or make a person taller) are directed at the germ, or reproductive cells.
Germ line gene therapy, by both preventing disease by inserting correct copies of genes into reproductive cells and enabling this correction to be passed on to succeeding generations, presents both technical and ethical problems.
More importantly, as they continued to breed the animals, they found that the altered phenotype was retained all the way to the fourth generation--the male germ line had been permanently reprogrammed.
However, little is known about the relevance of the germ-line mutations of CHEK2 in the risk for developing leukemia and whether the germ line 1100delC CHEK2 sequence variant confers higher risk of leukemia, especially for treatment-related leukemia (TRL) and MDS.
This principle is applied to ethical issues emerging from embyronic stem cell (ESC) and genetic engineering biotechnologies with the following results: 1) use of human blastocysts for ESC research and therapy, genetic engineering of human somatic cells, and genetic engineering of the human germ line to rid the species of heritable, debilitating diseases are justified, and 2) germ line engineering for genetic "enhancement" is not justifiable.
In a report it issued on inheritable genetic modification, AAAS took the position that no genetic modifications affecting the germ line, whether intentional or inadvertent, should be undertaken until the technology's safety, efficacy, and social implications
The creation of any cloned child with a changed genome would be in addition a Promethean grasp at the human germ line, but even cloning a person without genetic manipulation would convert kinship and childhood into just the sort of commodities those sixty cell lines have become.
Germ line cells from early fetuses, derived from terminated pregnancies, are almost as useful as embryonic stem cells.
The male germ line is a major source of new mutations in humans because the germ cell line is dividing every 16 days.
The invention further relates to germ line mutations in the MTS gene and their use in the diagnosis of predisposition to melanoma, leukemia, astrocytoma, glioblastoma, lymphoma, glioma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, CLL, and cancers of the pancreas, breast, thyroid, ovary, uterus, testis, kidney, stomach and rectum.
Absence of Sxl is associated with upregulation of genes on the single X chromosome (dosage compensation), male somatic development, and male germ line development.