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Following oral administration of 14C-laropiprant in humans, approximately 68 % of the dose was recovered in faeces (primarily as parent compound, comprising unabsorbed active substance and/or hydrolysed glucuronic acid conjugate) and 22 % was recovered in urine (primarily as metabolites).
The enzymatic products in supernatant were found to be CADPE and glucuronic acid as detected by co-HPLC and co-TLC (silica gel, developing solvent: [CHC1.
Some acceptors such as 1-naphthol and 4-nitrophenol, which are highly conjugated with glucuronic acid in the late fetal stage, have been classified as group 1, whereas other acceptors such as estradiol, testosterone, and morphine, which are barely conjugated at birth, have been classified as group 2 (20,21).
We accounted for spontaneous glucuronic acid conjugation to testosterone by running tubes that had all the assay components except the microsomal protein.
Quantification was therefore based on a common reaction in the mass spectrometry system, namely cleavage of one glucuronic acid from a flavonoidic structure, and this was the first and only study to our knowledge in which fiavonolignan metabolites were quantified without applying enzymatic hydrolysis before the analysis, thus providing an actual fingerprint of their urinary excretion.
These experiments did not, however, demonstrate whether the conjugation was through the hydroxyl or the carboxyl group of glucuronic acid.
Following total acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction with TFA, the sugar components were analyzed using TLC and the resultant chromatogram indicated the presence of six monosaccharides, including glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid, according to the spots matching with corresponding monosaccharide standards.
This may be related to the fact that acyl glucuronides undergo intramolecular rearrangement at physiological pH from position 1 to positions 2, 3, and 4 in the glucuronic acid moiety (14).
Olive polyphenols were absorbed and metabolized within the body, occurring in plasma mainly in the conjugated form with glucuronic acid and reaching [C.
The urinary metabolites result from hydroxylation at the C-7 methyl group at C-8 and C-9 of the isopropyl moiety, forming a series of mono- and dihydroxymenthols and carboxylic acids, some of which are excreted in part as glucuronic acid conjugates.
All of them, with the exception of DHFA, have been found not free but conjugated to sulfuric or glucuronic acid.
Consequences: Glucuronic acid or sulfuric acid conjugates of hydroquinones obviously are taken up, enriched and metabolized to hydroquinone by bacteria.