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Figure 2a/b shows the Vickers Hardness HV (calculated from the indentation hardness HIT) and the indentation modulus EIT of two coatings--a hard anodised coating (480 HV) of 11 [micro]m thickness (shown in red) and a soft anodised coating of 14 [micro]m thickness (shown in blue).
If hardness of water is very high it may even cause non uniform dyeing.
Similarly when the hair reacts with hard water, the cations; calcium and magnesium are absorbed from the water by the anion sites of hair and results in oxidation of hair (similar to oxidative damage in hair dyeing), is influenced by both water hardness and/or pH.
According to [10], ranges of hardness testing are defined: macro scale--test force diapazon 2 N--30 kN, micro scale--test force less than 2 N, indentation depth more than 0.
The aim of this study was to evaluate cure depth of two nano-hybrid low-shrinkage bulk-fill resin based composite materials using the Vickers hardness test 24 hours post-cure.
Results: Result showed that hardness of MPG was higher than MPP and after conditioning in simulated body fluid at all time periods, hardness of both types of plates was increased.
Hardness is the resistance of a material to deformation, particularly permanent deformation, indentation or scratching.
John Piller, Indentec's managing director, said: "Our machines are used to maintain product quality and the availability of this software means that an Indentec hardness testing machine now has multiple functions, resulting in savings in costly optical laboratory equipment.
The pH, ammonia concentration, level of microbial contamination and the hardness of water used in scald tanks, washers and chiller tanks can influence the ability of sanitizing procedures to remove microorganisms from carcasses during processing.
These include increased early and final mar resistance, lower color, higher scratch resistance, and hardness.
While common testing of (macro) hardness according to Vickers is done by means of load of 10 N to 1200 N, the forces weaker than 10 N were used first in 1932, when such testing was done at the National Physical Laboratory in UK.
2 Comparative analysis on surface hardness of plant leaves