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THEOCRACY. A species of government which claims to be immediately directed by God.
     2. La religion qui, dans l'antiquite, s'associa souvent au despotisms, pour regner. par son bras ou a son ombrage, a quelquefois tents de regner seule. Clest ce qu'elle appelait le regne de Dieu, la thiocratie. Matter, De l'influence des Moeurs sur les lois, et de l'influence dos Lois sur les moeurs, 189. Religion, which in former times, frequently associated itself with despotism, to reign, by its power, or under its shadow, has sometimes attempted to reign alone, and this she has called the reign of God, theocracy.

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Furthermore, to the hierocracy and to many mainstream conservatives, the millenarian propaganda offensive unleashed by the president and his supporters amounted to an attempted usurpation of the Islamic Republic.
14) This diverse (though certainly not exclusive) makeup of Baha'i converts suggests that, in addition to directly absorbing some of the clergy's most reliable political supporters, the Baha'is, because of their successes in converting Jews and Zoroastrians, directly challenged the primacy of the hierocracy within Iran.
Second, instead of the exclusive leadership of the shah, the hierocracy provides the regime with a more collective leadership.
In the 19th century, during the period of Qajar rule, Usuli scholars elaborated a theory of a Shiite hierocracy that was independent of the Shah, and it was on this basis that a dual structure of authority--a system of two powers--was established.
The further institutionalization of the Islamic hierocracy has been reinforced by cultural practices within the Shiite community as well.