However, "the possibility of false positive BP II diagnoses, especially with brief hypomanic episodes
, must be conceded while our examination of clinical symptoms was limited to two measures," they wrote, citing one of several limitations.
However, if his writing bursts were accompanied by manic or hypomanic episodes
, then the risky activity that may have accompanied such excesses of energy may well have been sexual.
For example, during manic or hypomanic episodes
, people commonly report religious feelings and mystical experiences.
Although the defining features are manic or hypomanic episodes
, patients typically present for treatment of depression and commonly deny symptoms of mood elevation.
Bipolar I refers to individuals who experience depression alternating with out-of-control or psychotic mania, and Bipolar II refers to those who suffer depression and experience hypomanic episodes
without loss of control or psychosis.
MDD is characterized by one or more major depressive episodes without a history of manic, mixed or hypomanic episodes
BD NOS was the diagnosis of six patients who developed manic or hypomanic episodes
while on antidepressant medication.
The Task Force also suggested modifications to the diagnostic criteria for BD II and BD NOS to improve the identification of bipolar spectrum disorders to include the following: (i) subthreshold hypomanic episodes
, and (ii) other signs of bipolarity without manic or hypomanic episodes
(also known as bipolar spectrum disorder).
The diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode in MDD is the same as for a depressive episode of bipolar disorder with the major distinguishing feature between the disorders being the absence of manic or hypomanic episodes