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presidential inaction to ask and answer a difficult question that
Courts, in reviewing agency inaction under the APA, in effect
Recognizing how APA review of agency inaction works to optimally reduce
debate about what to do with policy-oriented presidential inaction.
debate around purposive presidential inaction, recounting the formal and
The consequences of doing nothing: Inaction inertia as avoidance of anticipated counterfactual regret.
These expectancies are norms by which inaction is perceived as typical and action as abnormal and more mutable (Kahneman & Miller, 1986; Landman, 1987).
1990) varied the salience of the counterfactual and also reported more regret for action than inaction.
Davis, Lehman, Wortman, Silver, and Thompson (1995) found that people who unexpectedly lost a family member in an accident regretted inaction more than actions, and sometimes they mutated both (actions and failures to act) in the same sentence.
Some of these variables were emotional, like arguing that people try to reduce the dissonance generated by their actions; hence, regret of action is reduced with time, but regret of inaction stays.
Inaction would be preferred for mutation in the long term only when their counterfactual could have been better than the real negative consequences.
In the case of governmental actions or inactions, the PPA may be