These entheogenic incenses and "unmixed wines" (meaning spiked with any number of psychoactive plants and undiluted with water) had many common ingredients such as myrrh and frankincense, opium and ivies.
The components of the early Taoist incenses are encoded in many esoteric texts, sometimes overtly mentioning decidedly psychoactive ingredients.
Talking of the many poems and strange incenses, he says there is "all in all much reason for thinking the ancient Taoists experimented systematically with hallucinogenic smokes" (Needham 1974).
Sidestepping the debate as to the identity of Nagarjuna (Mabbett 1998), there are known examples of Tantric psychoactive incenses composed of Datura metel used in the Vajramabhairava Tantra (Ratsch 2005; Siklos 1995).
Thus both types of adept meditate in the smoke of their holy, magical and psychoactive incenses no matter if they ingest elixirs or not.
Jinn are exorcised throughout the Islamic world by burning incenses and holding the patient and Surahs of the Koran in the smoke (Hentschel 1997).
Translations of Arabic texts and survivals of paganism in Europe offer a context of supernatural plants and shamanic practices that evidence a continued use of psychoactive incenses as a catalyst into trance or ecstatic states.
There is little discussion in the vast witchcraft literature of psychoactive incenses or fumigations as a primary mode of ingestion.
His visions may been induced by some of these herbal incenses, such as is described in this passage (Century I--Quatrain I.
The examples of possible psychoactive incenses in witchcraft, alchemy and European paganism are legion.
Magical incenses persisted into the sixteenth century Jewish mysticism with magical fumigations (fumusterrae) that consisted of toxic metals and minerals and plants such as black hellebore that purged demons, restored cheer and banished melancholy.