Jinn are exorcised throughout the Islamic world by burning incenses and holding the patient and Surahs of the Koran in the smoke (Hentschel 1997).
Translations of Arabic texts and survivals of paganism in Europe offer a context of supernatural plants and shamanic practices that evidence a continued use of psychoactive incenses as a catalyst into trance or ecstatic states.
There is little discussion in the vast witchcraft literature of psychoactive incenses or fumigations as a primary mode of ingestion.
His visions may been induced by some of these herbal incenses, such as is described in this passage (Century I--Quatrain I.
The examples of possible psychoactive incenses in witchcraft, alchemy and European paganism are legion.
Magical incenses persisted into the sixteenth century Jewish mysticism with magical fumigations (fumusterrae) that consisted of toxic metals and minerals and plants such as black hellebore that purged demons, restored cheer and banished melancholy.
Ephrem images the death of Christ as the true sacrificial incense offering, which Christians are called to imitate at the very least by the nature and quality of their love:
Let us offer up our songs and prayers like incense to the One Who made His cross a censer to the Divinity, and offered His blood on behalf of us all.
The introduction of incense into Christian ritual after more than 300 years of exclusion carried both the inheritance of traditional meanings, including sacrificial symbolism, as well as fresh nuances sprung from Christianity's own developments.
Yet Christian writers came quickly to deflect the religious signification of incense offerings away from sacrificial imagery and towards epistemology.
Rich is the incense from [Julian's] censer, Its fragrance billows and wafts to every place.
The incense buring at Julian's tomb proclaims, teaches, and summons all who breathe its sweetness.