36) Doing so likely would encourage greater attention and care, thereby reducing negligence and accompanying harms As Hart points out, punishing the inculpable would also avoid sticky credibility concerns and eliminate the motive for defendants to malinger in order to avoid liability.
23) Bentham's efforts turn on his claim that it would be "inefficacious" to punish inculpable offenders because the threat of penal sanction did not and could not reach them, and therefore did not and could not have played a role in their decisions to act.
Is inculpable ignorance, then, the same as invincible ignorance?
My fourth and final section unites the foregoing analyses, elucidating Vatican II's understanding of inculpable ignorance as both a rediscovery of elements already present in the tradition, and (in light of insights from the sociology of knowledge) as justifying a wide-ranging "presumption of ignorance" (13) on the part of contemporary non-Christians.
7 explains quite what inculpable ignorance might entail.
If so, then this would also be a factor in maintaining their inculpable ignorance regarding Catholic truth-claims about the gospel and the Church, even if not necessarily with regard to the existence of God.
What Vatican II seems to have intended by inculpable ignorance is, therefore, in substantial agreement with what, in the 16th century,
Thus, with its doctrine of inculpable ignorance, Vatican II both authentically developed Plus IX's teaching on invincible ignorance and (apparently unwittingly) rediscovered an understanding of invincible ignorance already firmly present in the nonmagisterial tradition of the Church, while at the same time seemingly avoiding the phrase itself as something potentially misleading.
Nevertheless in different forms it has already been maintained in it for a long time, for instance by Vasquez and Ripalda, and materially speaking should certainly be accorded recognition as a prolongation of what the Second Vatican Council teaches with regard to the possibility of salvation for the non-Christian and the inculpable