First, the direct object and indirect object bare wh-items are better than their which-NP equivalents.
Across the middle of the graph are the direct and indirect objects, all four conditions showing rather more spread than the in-situ subjects, but with fairly even mean values by in-situ wh-item.
In the case of entenderle, the clitic pronoun is understood as the indirect object of the verb, so that entenderle a Juan means to understand what Juan is saying, with Juan functioning as the indirect object of entender, and what Juan says functioning as the direct object of entender.
This occurs because llamar can mean either 'to give a name to something' and is thus synonymous with the expression ponerle nombre a 'to give a name to', in which case it would be constructed with an indirect object, or 'to call something by its name', in which case a direct object would be used, as has been pointed out by Garcia (1975: 292):
the pattern indirect object + direct object is more natural than the pattern direct object + prepositional object.
1-2 and 2 it can be deduced: If there is any difference, in the verbs give, offer, and sell, between the pattern indirect object + direct object and the pattern direct object + prepositional object, such that one pattern is common, and the other pattern is less common, it is the pattern indirect object + direct object that tends to be common, and it is the pattern direct object + prepositional object that tends to be less common.
This expansion of the use of vir for (animate) direct and indirect objects
is usually explained as being due to influences from Asian Creole Portuguese, while the evidence seems to point at Indo-Portuguese in particular.
The contexts for subject ellipsis yielded four configurations -- SV, SV(O), SVO, and SVOI; for direct object ellipsis three configurations -- SV(O), SVO, and SVOI; and for indirect object
ellipsis only one configuration -- SVOI.
These examples suggest that animacy and/or person constrains indirect object
marking in the Mayan languages.
If a language distinguishes, with the verb tell, between the presence and absence of an indirect object
such that one option is acceptable and the other option is not acceptable, then it is the presence of an indirect object
that tends to be acceptable and it is the absence of an indirect object
that tends to be unacceptable.
86-87), to show that gender/number marking in the 3rd indirect object
was already a marginal phenomenon in OI (pp.
Topics include complete and simple subjects and predicates, compound subjects and verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and direct and indirect objects
, all taught through Calvert's tradition of diagramming.