6) Extraposition of infinitival VP sentential subjects is necessary if the reference of the VP is discourse-old or inferrable.
Specifically, the reference of the sentential or infinitival VP subject must be discourse-old or directly inferrable from the previous discourse context in order to remain in subject position.
If the sentential subject is not discourse-old or directly inferrable, another construction must be chosen.
The example in (31), also from CHILDES, illustrates an elliptical como-conditional clause whose elided apodosis is easily inferrable as expressing an undesirable consequence.
Because of this strong association between protasis form and discourse-pragmatic function, elided apodoses of como conditionals in discourse are usually easily inferrable and plainly not at all "outside of the hearer's realm of expectation" as argued in prior analyses (e.
Thus, the strong interpretational clue that como + SUBJ marking supplies helps explain the fact that, as noted repeatedly in section 3 above, the "missing" apodosis in elliptical como conditionals is often easily inferrable in discourse.
Even though the denotatum `inside' is inferrable from the denotatum `envelope' in the immediately preceding utterance (envelopes are containers), it has a focus relation to the proposition.
As in (16), the denotatum of the focus phrase (female stars) is inferrable from elements in the preceding utterance.
In the given discourse situation, the subject entity `Huma' represents the unpredictable (hence focal) portion of B's reply, whereas the predicate `told me' is the relatively predictable (hence topical) portion, being inferrable from A's question: one typically knows something because one has learned it from someone.
Delin distinguishes three information statuses, old, inferrable, and new, defined as in (16).
Frequencies of presuppositional relations by cleft type (Delin 1989: 197) Presuppositional It clefts Wh clefts Reversed wh clefts relation Old 16 3 2 Inferrable 18 47 20 New 16 0 28
For example, they claim that only what clauses encode strictly given information, whereas inferrable information (in Delin's 1989 sense) may be encoded by what and non-what cases alike, although preferences vary with the type of inference required.