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My one very minor worry is that, ironically enough, for someone whose central argument makes a lovely point in favor of Kantian nonintellectualism, Rayman also seems to have uncritically absorbed the standard intellectualist reading of Kant's conception of the relationship between reason and the affects, according to which desires, emotions, feelings, and passions are essentially enslavers of human reason, hence inimical to human reason, and not either essential to or even compatible with our reason and its basic aims.
The character 'Socrates' who appears in Plato's middle and late dialogues, on the other hand, stands for Plato himself, someone who does not accept his teacher's intellectualist views.
Some of those who resist intellectualist interpretations altogether do so, in fact, because they are dubious of there being sufficiently decisive evidence upon which to build so much as a properly Socratic philosophy, intellectualist or otherwise.
Among Socrates' intellectualist interpreters, it is perhaps Terry Penner who has done the most to expound and defend a robust intellectualism on the basis of the relevant dialogues.
To say that justice is mutable and that it adapts to meet moral needs specific to historical circumstances is not to imply that justice is arbitrary or historically relative, as both intellectualists and radical historicists may be tempted to infer.
The new understanding will be compared and contrasted with both traditional, intellectualist notions of morality and more thoroughgoing varieties of historicism.
Groping for a different term, Burke says that morality's "principles" would have to take precedence--though he clearly does not intend this term to carry with it its intellectualist connotations, as the contrast with moral "rules" indicates.
Intellectualists such as Aquinas argued that the will, being a rational appetite, is dependent on the intellect for all of its acts.
Exegetes continue to dispute whether Aquinas was principally a voluntarist or an intellectualist but seem less interested, as a general rule, in the question of whether there occurred a development in his view of the will.
In order to defuse the seriousness of the first set of charges against Socrates, I tried on a number of earlier occasions to construct an interpretation of his character as we find it in Plato's early works according to which Socrates, no matter how intellectualist, is totally unconcerned with the moral improvement of others.
1) Socrates was an intellectualist but Plato was not Aristotle's criticism of "Socrates" may not be meant as a criticism of Plato and may only apply to the early dialogues, which are usually considered more Socratic in doctrine than the later ones.
Aristotle attributes intellectualism to Socrates rather than to Plato, so the first two of the above possibilities seem safest; but on the other hand Aristotle goes on to say that Plato still failed to distinguish adequately questions of virtue from questions of truth,(8) so perhaps Plato is still an intellectualist in some sense.