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Intellectualists must explain away or soft-pedal passages like (2), while affectivists must do the same with passages like (1).
The character 'Socrates' who appears in Plato's middle and late dialogues, on the other hand, stands for Plato himself, someone who does not accept his teacher's intellectualist views.
To say that justice is mutable and that it adapts to meet moral needs specific to historical circumstances is not to imply that justice is arbitrary or historically relative, as both intellectualists and radical historicists may be tempted to infer.
The traditional division of late medieval theology into two distinct and competing schools, the realist, intellectualist via antiqua and the nominalist, voluntarist via moderna is familiar to scholars of this period.
To conform to the official methodology of the Phenomenology, Intellectualists must start from the given composition of Ethical Consciousness and derive from it alone a rival system of new concepts for judging and criticizing the beliefs of its old social order.
As I will explain below (section V), this interpretation characterizes the desire thesis in a recognizably intellectualist way, as a variant of the claim that no one wrongs willingly.
In recent years, a debate concerning the nature of knowing-how has emerged between intellectualists who claim that knowledge-how is reducible to knowledge-that and antiintellectualists who claim that knowledge-how comprises a unique and irreducible knowledge category.
For if Rayman is correct about the connection between sublimity and morality, then the Kantian nonintellectualists are right, and the Kantian intellectualists are wrong.
The intellectual context for Bernard, as well as the other thinkers discussed in this book (Augustine, Pseudo-Dionysius, John of Damascus, Anselm, Abelard, Aquinas, Henry of Ghent, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, and a substantial number of lesser-known voluntarists, intellectualists, and Renaissance and Reformation figures, as well as Luther) was clearly the concern--both pastoral and theoretical--of Christian moral theologians with sin and salvation (indeed, the editors identify six non-Aristotelian contexts for the medieval discussion).
Now the will's necessitation by the final end was a claim that virtually all late thirteenth-century thinkers, voluntarists and intellectualists alike, accepted.
Just for this reason, intellectualists pay no heed to the necessity of socialization and habituation, to the importance of the careful, long-term attention to our noncognitive side which, it seems plausible to claim, is at least as necessary for becoming good as is the knowledge of the nature of goodness.
1) Socrates was an intellectualist but Plato was not Aristotle's criticism of "Socrates" may not be meant as a criticism of Plato and may only apply to the early dialogues, which are usually considered more Socratic in doctrine than the later ones.