foramen

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Related to jugular foramen: Internal acoustic meatus, optic canal, hypoglossal canal
See: loophole
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The myxoid variant is the most commonly found subtype in the jugular foramen and petrous apex.
Fob lowing satisfactory exposure and with control of bleeding, the tumor was approached from inside the jugular foramen and total removal was thought to be achieved with preservation of the IX and X nerves with the exception of a thin strand of IX.
The ideal goal of surgery for patients with a jugular foramen tumor is a complete surgical excision with preservation of the lower cranial nerves and major vessels.
Jugular foramen involvement may be characterized by several eponymous syndromes.
Lesions that originate in the jugular foramen or the area of the hypotympanum may be associated with pulsatile tinnitus, hearing loss, aural fullness, hoarseness, and dysphagia; less common signs and symptoms are vertigo, balance dysfunction, and facial nerve dysfunction.
Jugular foramen tumors may cause lower cranial nerve symptoms or very few clinical findings due to contralateral cranial nerve compensation.
CT with bone window detail revealed a well-marginated enlargement of the left jugular foramen (not shown).
The tumor's intracranial component was found to extend along the petrous ridge to the cavernous sinus anteriorly and to the jugular foramen inferiorly.
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone (3-mm serial cuts) demonstrated (1) heterogenously enhancing densities with loculated collections in the left middle ear and mastoid cavities, (2) gross destruction of the mastoid portion of the left temporal bone, left occipital bone, and adjacent basisphenoid bone, and (3) destruction of the carotid canal, jugular foramen, and styloid process (figure 2).
5) In the middle ear or mastoid portion of the temporal bone, an intracranial meningioma can extend along the path of least resistance through a tegmen tympani to dehiscence, the sulci of the greater and lesser superficial petrosal nerves, the sigmoid sinus plate, the geniculate ganglion area, the internal auditory canal, the lateral semicircular canal, and the perilabyrinthine cell tracts or jugular foramen.
During the work-up, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected two large bilateral acoustic neuromas and two bilateral jugular foramen tumors.