Other strategies such as translating what is heard into Chinese, trying to understand every word, listening for key words, creating a picture of what is heard, and guessing content based on the understood parts were considered general strategies that students would use without being provided with support.
directly listening for detailed information because the topics were known, and
If the effects of varied types of listening support are excluded, the two most frequently used strategies were guessing the content based on the understood parts and listening for key words (see Appendix B).
Moving to the strategies used by non-anxious students, in the PQ group, the three students all used varied strategies, which included translating what they heard into Chinese, taking notes, focusing on key words, listening for necessary information only, and listening hard and trying to understand every word.
Overall, three strategies reflected the direct influence of support methods: listening for relevant information and predicting topics and identifying key words through studying the vocabulary and reading the test questions.
The strategies most frequently mentioned were: matching words found in the test questions and heard in the recordings, predicting discourse topics from test questions, continuing to revise comprehension through repeated input, directly listening for detailed information when the topics were known, and predicting the topics through vocabulary in the lists and test questions.
Metacognitive instruction in listening for young learners.