Many horses suffer from lower airway
diseases, and until recently, the only treatment available was reducing dust levels in the environment and food.
Auzary and colleagues (6) reported on five cases of pregnancy with WG and put forward that the differential diagnosis of WG from preeclampsia should be made by the absence of hypertension (which is rare in a WG flare), the presence of extra-renal manifestations, especially upper and lower airways
, and positive ANCA titers.
Radiography is most commonly the initial modality for the evaluation of upper and lower airway
abnormalities in the pediatric patient and may be followed by CT studies to further evaluate inflammatory processes and extent of trauma.
Major Finding: On bronchoscopic evaluation of children diagnosed with autism or autism spectrum disorders, all had doubled branches in the lower airway
Inhaled or intranasal corticosteroids are commonly used in children with recurrent lower airways
obstruction, allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive airways disease.
Large particles (>5 microns) tend to deposit in the upper airways, while smaller particles reach the lower airways
, deep into the lung.
Based on these findings, Seihai-to seems not to improve the swallowing reflex, but may improve a defense mechanism or excessive inflammation caused by pneumonia in the lower airway
An adequate cough is one where the child can cough up phlegm (lower respiratory secretions) when the phlegm is blocking some of the lower airway
B reed - Certain breeds are predisposed to conditions, such as luxating patellae in Yorkshire Terriers, chronic lower airway
disease in Siamese cats and cancer in Golden Retrievers.
The mucous layer that resides along the apical (lumenal) surface of these columnar epithelial cells is efficiently propelled cephalad by the cilia to protect the lower airway
from inhaled irritants.
In an animal study of another high-frequency method of ventilation, high-frequency jet ventilation produces better gas exchange than HFOV at lower airway
Our findings suggest that lower airway
diseases such as asthma can impair phonation, and we recommend future studies with larger populations to further explore this issue.