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Close examination of the pronotal maculations combined with habitat and geographical proximity may provide a reliable means of separating nymphs of these three taxa, and have been used in constructing the following tentative key.
Whatever the cause of textual maculation, one must conclude that with respect to those places where rabbinic law departs irreconcilably from the written word, religious loyalty to this written word cannot have been complete.
In short, the intellectual irritations that accompany textual maculation are less irksome than the problems risked by eliminating textual difficulties through scribal intervention, thereby undermining holiness and disturbing links to the past.
For the critical scholar, the tension between scriptural maculation and scriptural sanctity is an elucidating factor in the analysis of biblical and rabbinic literature.
Generalized cowbird egg mimicry is plausible because most grassland passerine eggs are similar in color and maculation pattern (Peer and Sealy 2004, Klippenstine and Sealy 2008).
We quantitatively compared color and maculation pattern of cowbird eggs to eggs of a community of grassland passerines known to accept cowbird eggs, but eject non-mimetic eggs, to examine the possibility of generalized cowbird egg mimicry (Klippenstine and Sealy 2008): Sprague's Pipits (Anthus spragueii), Vesper Sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus), Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), Baird's Sparrows (Ammodramus
We predicted if generalized cowbird egg mimicry has evolved that: (1) cowbird eggs would match the average color and maculation pattern present among the eggs of all six grassland passerines; (2) cowbirds would have incorporated enough of the community-wide variation that a proportion of their eggs would match those of each grassland passerine; and (3) an individual cowbird egg would be capable of mimicking the eggs of more than one species.
Hindwing with same color maculation as forewing, with large orange patch medially.
This and the following species have similar wing maculation and uniquely specialized flagellum with long scales, but the former can be distinguished by the forewing with a rounded median patch and a light orange terminal line along termen in both wings.
The reddish-brown maculation consisted of one part burnt umber and one part wicker white, whereas the gray maculation was composed of one part medium gray and one part wicker white; both were then spattered on the surface of the egg with a toothbrush to resemble a typical cowbird egg.
The maculation on both wings are slightly variable within species and cannot serve as a good diagnostic character for identification.
Forewing more elongate, narrower; apex more sharply produced and termen more oblique than that of the latter; ground color orange white; maculation variable.