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A series of actions, motions, or occurrences; a method, mode, or operation, whereby a result or effect is produced; normal or actual course of procedure; regular proceeding, as, the process of vegetation or decomposition; a chemical process; processes of nature.

In patent law, an art or method by which any particular result is produced. A definite combination of new or old elements, ingredients, operations, ways, or means to produce a new, improved, or old result, and any substantial change therein by omission, to the same or better result, or by modification or substitution, with different function, to the same or better result, is a new and patentable process.

In civil and criminal proceedings, any means used by a court to acquire or exercise its jurisdiction over a person or over specific property. A summons or summons and complaint; sometimes, a writ.


Service of Process.


n. in law, the legal means by which a person is required to appear in court or a defendant is given notice of a legal action against him/her/it. When a complaint in a lawsuit is filed, it must be served on each defendant together with a summons issued by the clerk of the court, stating the amount of time (say, 30 days) in which the defendant has to file an answer or other legal pleading with the clerk of the court and sent to the plaintiff. A subpena is a similar to a summons but is a notice to a witness to appear at a deposition (testimony taken outside court), or at a trial. A subpena duces tecum is an order to deliver documents or other evidence either into court or to the attorney for a party to a lawsuit or criminal prosecution. An order to show cause is a court order to appear in court and give a reason why the court should not issue an order (such as paying temporary child support). The summons, complaint, subpena, subpena duces tecum and order to show cause must all be "served" on the defendant or person required to appear or produce, and this is called "service of process." Service of process is usually made by an officer of the court such as a deputy sheriff or marshal, or a professional process server, but can be performed by others in most jurisdictions. (See: summons, subpena, order to show cause, process server, service of process)


(Course), noun action, conduct, continued movement, continuing development, handling, line of accion, manner, means, method, methodology, mode of oppration, operation, performance, plan, policy, procedure, progressive course, ratio, regular proceeding, ritual, scheme, series of measures, strategy, system, tactics, transaction, treatment, way, ways and means
Associated concepts: due process, judicial process


(Summons), noun authoritative citation to appear before a court, authoritative command, behest, bidding, citation, command, direction, instruction to appear, legal call, lis, official call, official notice, requirement to appear, signal by which one is summoned, subpoena, writ
Associated concepts: abuse of process, compulsory process, defective process, irregular process, return of process, service of process
See also: avenue, channel, conduit, course, expedient, instrumentality, manufacture, method, mode, modus operandi, operation, practice, procedure, proceeding, search warrant, step, subpoena, system, transaction, treatment, warrant

PROCESS, practice. So denominated because it proceeds or issues forth in order to bring the defendant into court, to answer the charge preferred against him, and signifies the writ or judicial means by which he is brought to answer. 1 Paine, R. 368 Bouv. Inst. Index, h.t.
     2. In the English law, process in civil causes is called original process, when it is founded upon the original writ; and also to distinguish it from mesne or intermediate process, which issues pending the suit, upon some collateral interlocutory matter, as, to summon juries, witnesses,, and the like; mesne process is also sometimes put in contradistinction to final process, or process of execution; and then it signifies all process which intervenes between the beginning and end of a suit. 3 Bl. Com. 279.
     3. In criminal cases that proceeding which is called a warrant, before the finding of the bill, is termed process when issued after the indictment has been found by the jury. Vide 4 Bl. Com. 319; Dalt. J. c. 193; Com. Dig. Process, A 1; Burn's Dig. Process; Williams, J, Process; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 338; 17 Vin. Ab. 585.
     4. The word process in the 12th section of the 5th article of the constitution of Pennsylvania, which provides that "the style of all process shall be The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania," was intended to refer to such writs only as should become necessary to be issued in the course of the exercise of that judicial power which is established and provided for in the article of the constitution, and forms exclusively the subject matter of it. 3 Penna. R. 99.

PROCESS, rights. The means or method of accomplishing a thing.
     2. It has been said that the word manufacture, (q.v.) in the patent laws, may, perhaps, extend to a new process, to be carried on by known implements, or elements, acting upon known substances, and ultimately producing some other known substance, but producing it in a cheaper or more expeditious manner, or of a better and more useful kind. 2 B. & Ald. 349. See Perpigna, Manuel des Inventeurs, &c., c. 1; s. 5, Sec. 1, p. 22, 4th ed.; Manufacture; Method.

PROCESS, MESNE, practice. By this term is generally understood any writ issued in the course of a suit between the original process and execution.
     2. By this term is also meant the writ or proceedings in an action to summon or bring the defendant into court, or compel him to appear or put in bail, and then to hear and answer the plaintiffs claim. 3 Chit. Pr. 140.

References in periodicals archive ?
To calculate accuracy expansively, the palpator was judged to have been accurate when the center of the marker was placed closer to the most lateral aspect of the C1 TVP than to either the inferior aspect of the mastoid process or the most lateral aspect of the C2 TVP.
6% of individuals correctly classified, for male the best indicators were the size and overall architecture of skull and the size and ridges of the mastoid process, both with a 87% hit.
The mastoid antrum was absent, with the mastoid process represented by a solid block of bone (figure).
It arises on the top in the mastoid process and in the superior nape line of the occipital bone.
Open Competition: Providing Services For The Medical Rehabilitation Of Insured Persons Who Have Suffered As A Result Of Accidents At Work And Occupational Diseases, Organizations Providing Spa Services And Hospital Care For 2016, With Diseases Of The Respiratory System, Digestive System, Nervous System, The Genitourinary System, Bone - Musculoskeletal System And Connective Tissue Disorders Of Eye And Adnexa, Diseases Of The Skin And Subcutaneous Tissue, Diseases Of The Ear And Mastoid Process.
X-ray showed an indistinct expansile lytic lesion of right mastoid process.
The stylohyoid ligament connects the apex of the styloid process and the lesser horn of the hyoid bone, and the stylomandibular ligament extends from the styloid process to the parotideomasseteric fascia between the mandible and the mastoid process.
These growths are generally symmetrical and are most common over mastoid process, nape of neck and in submaxillary region.
4) However, Morocco reported a case of multiple osteomas of the mastoid process that were growing from the inner table.
Open Competition: Providing services for the medical rehabilitation of insured persons suffered from industrial accidents and occupational diseases, institutions (organizations) engaged in medical activities to provide medical care for spa treatment people with diseases of the nervous system, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases , diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases of the endocrine system, diseases of the eye and adnexa, diseases of the ear and mastoid process, diseases of the digestive system, diseases of the genitourinary system, the provision of specialized medical care in a hospital of occupational diseases.
Computed tomography (CT) of the head and sinuses revealed erosion of the left mastoid process with opacification of mastoid air cells.
Computed tomography (CT) of the brain and temporal bone demonstrated an extensive opacification of the right mastoid process and indications of erosion of the mastoid surface that created an opening to the posterior cranial fossa at the level of the sigmoid sinus (figure 1).