Figure 5 shows the values of the Young's modulus
I agree with Mr Hough's comment that the material modulus
is not a measure of lens stiffness.
As hard as it is to find continuous plots of modulus
versus temperature, it is even more difficult to find continuous plots of apparent modulus
as a function of time.
Owing to the small tested region in nanoindentation, the Young's modulus
was obtained by averaging ten indentations.
The first three drops were ignored and the next three were averaged and the result was taken as the PFWD modulus
of each layer.
To monitor the modulus
development of reacting polyurethane foam from soy polyol and to study the effect of formulation ingredients and process parameters.
That choice had the particular virtue of providing a closed form expression for the bulk modulus
The slope of the storage modulus
curve can be represented by tan ([pi]-[alpha]) (tan equals to the ratio of the decreased storage modulus
to the increased temperature (see Figs.
The parameter [alpha] contains geometric constants, the sample elastic modulus
, E, the sample Poisson's ratio, v, the indenter elastic modulus
They said that this phenomenon resulted from a surface layer containing an excess of matrix material, which gives rise to a fictitious increase in apparent modulus
as particle size decreases.
For instance, in 1995, one group estimated that the bulk modulus
of osmium would be 476 GPa.
In general, this requires calculating approximate surface areas, volumes and modulus
values through manual or software-based methods to break the casting into simple shapes.