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We hold that agencies must act based on reasons, but also that (1) agencies may have reasons they cannot give, at least at acceptable cost; and (2) the set of admissible reasons includes second-order reasons to act inaccurately, nonrationally, or arbitrarily.
We need rather the distinction between desires that are rationally and those that are nonrationally arrived at.
It recognizes that limits of time, information, and resources may give agencies good second-order reasons to act inaccurately, nonrationally, or arbitrarily, in a first-order sense.
Decision makers may behave nonrationally when confronted by complex financial problems, or when given apparently relevant, but actually unimportant, information (Agnew and Szykman 2005; Benartzi and Thaler 2007; Choi, Laibson, and Madrian 2008).
Reflection, in particular, leads to intuitive absurdities when one considers future beliefs one expects to form nonrationally.
Socio-economic man is moderately deontological, path-dependent, nonmonetary, nonrationally motivated, and community-minded.