05) based on the

normal approximation to a two-tailed Mann-Whitney test.

The simulations used in this paper clearly show that the thumb rule of 'n [greater than or equal to] 30' for the CLT to provide a good

normal approximation to the probability distribution of the sample mean does not work in the case of a heavily skewed probability distribution such as a typical slot game, and that the

normal approximation is valid even for moderate sample sizes when the game has a symmetric probability distribution of payouts (e.

Chatterjee [7] provides a rate of

normal approximation for the statistic [[?

A hexagonal field of variation was calculated by means of

normal approximation including arithmetic means, standard deviations, and upper or lower confidence limits ([C.

i] is the

normal approximation to the reported F-test from the ith study, and a measure of the parameter variability on a common scale.

We can compute the

normal approximation of this binomial probability by solving for E(r) and [[sigma].

For the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test, the

normal approximation formula is:

Therefore more than one third had values of the denominator that were too small for the

normal approximation to be adequate.

for p using the

normal approximation to the binomial distribution (cf.

pp] by the same

normal approximation method are found m Greenwich and Jahr-Schaffrath (1995).

The

normal approximation used in phenotypic distributions of body size may not be appropriate.

The two

normal approximation Equations 9 and 10 and the "hybrid" approximation using Equation 7 and the true [K.