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DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
The nucleic acid isolation and purification market exhibits lucrative growth potential from 2015 to 2020.
This book combines the contributions of many of the major players in this research field, and covers the synthesis of sugar-, base- and backbone-modified nucleic acids, their structural characteristics studied by X-ray crystallography, and NMR in solution as well as their chemical and biological properties.
Drivers, Restraints, and Trends-Total Nucleic Acid Purification and Isolation Market
Bayer estimates worldwide sales for the Nucleic Acid Infectious Disease market to be approximately $1 billion per year.
The PowerMag Blood Kit is the latest in the high quality nucleic acid purification tools developed using key MO BIO technologies:
com/prnh/20130307/600769 The global nucleic acid isolation and purification market is expected to witness a CAGR of 8.
a subsidiary of Degussa AG, has introduced a new product line, TrueSNP(TM) primer kits based on Locked Nucleic Acids (LNA(TM)).
It focuses on the methods for obtaining modified and native nucleic acids, and their biological applications.
Combining the know-how of Proligo and Genset Oligos will enable us to consistently expand our nucleic acid activities and position us to access the global biotechnology research market.
Although two other groups in the mid-1980s described laboratory-created replicating systems based on small nucleic acid molecules, Sessler says Rebek's work takes a step beyond them by using molecules with properties of both nucleic acids and proteins.
By 2018 we anticipate the nucleic acid technology market will have matured as many of the late-stage clinical programmes come to fruition and drug delivery companies continue to overcome issues surrounding its safety and efficiency.